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Hlaing T.,University of Manchester | Hlaing T.,Medical Entomology Research Division | Tun-Lin W.,Medical Entomology Research Division | Somboon P.,Chiang Mai University | And 10 more authors.
Evolutionary Applications | Year: 2010

Aedes aegypti mosquitoes originated in Africa and are thought to have spread recently to Southeast Asia, where they are the major vector of dengue. Thirteen microsatellite loci were used to determine the genetic population structure of A. aegypti at a hierarchy of spatial scales encompassing 36 sites in Myanmar, Cambodia and Thailand, and two sites in Sri Lanka and Nigeria. Low, but significant, genetic structuring was found at all spatial scales (from 5 to >2000km) and significant FIS values indicated genetic structuring even within 500m. Spatially dependent genetic-clustering methods revealed that although spatial distance plays a role in shaping larger-scale population structure, it is not the only factor. Genetic heterogeneity in major port cities and genetic similarity of distant locations connected by major roads, suggest that human transportation routes have resulted in passive long-distance migration of A. aegypti. The restricted dispersal on a small spatial scale will make localized control efforts and sterile insect technology effective for dengue control. Conversely, preventing the establishment of insecticide resistance genes or spreading refractory genes in a genetic modification strategy would be challenging. These effects on vector control will depend on the relative strength of the opposing effects of passive dispersal. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Kemppainen P.,University of Manchester | Kemppainen P.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | Knight C.G.,University of Manchester | Sarma D.K.,University of Manchester | And 7 more authors.
Molecular Ecology Resources | Year: 2015

Recent advances in sequencing allow population-genomic data to be generated for virtually any species. However, approaches to analyse such data lag behind the ability to generate it, particularly in nonmodel species. Linkage disequilibrium (LD, the nonrandom association of alleles from different loci) is a highly sensitive indicator of many evolutionary phenomena including chromosomal inversions, local adaptation and geographical structure. Here, we present linkage disequilibrium network analysis (LDna), which accesses information on LD shared between multiple loci genomewide. In LD networks, vertices represent loci, and connections between vertices represent the LD between them. We analysed such networks in two test cases: a new restriction-site-associated DNA sequence (RAD-seq) data set for Anopheles baimaii, a Southeast Asian malaria vector; and a well-characterized single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data set from 21 three-spined stickleback individuals. In each case, we readily identified five distinct LD network clusters (single-outlier clusters, SOCs), each comprising many loci connected by high LD. In A. baimaii, further population-genetic analyses supported the inference that each SOC corresponds to a large inversion, consistent with previous cytological studies. For sticklebacks, we inferred that each SOC was associated with a distinct evolutionary phenomenon: two chromosomal inversions, local adaptation, population-demographic history and geographic structure. LDna is thus a useful exploratory tool, able to give a global overview of LD associated with diverse evolutionary phenomena and identify loci potentially involved. LDna does not require a linkage map or reference genome, so it is applicable to any population-genomic data set, making it especially valuable for nonmodel species. © 2015 The Authors.

Zarowiecki M.,Natural History Museum in London | Zarowiecki M.,University of Manchester | Walton C.,University of Manchester | Torres E.,Institute of Tropical Medicine | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Biogeography | Year: 2011

Aim The environmental effect of Pleistocene climatic change in the Indo-Oriental region has resulted in allopatric fragmentation and the generation of diversity in forest-associated species. The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which Pleistocene climatic change has resulted in the fragmentation and speciation of an open-habitat-adapted mosquito, Anopheles vagus s.l., across its range. Location Anopheles vagus s.l. was sampled across the Indo-Oriental region. Methods We generated 116 mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and 121 nuclear internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) DNA sequences from 18 populations. Relationships between mitochondrial haplotypes were reconstructed using minimum spanning networks, and population structure was examined using analyses of molecular variance. The population history, including lineage divergence times, population expansion and gene flow, was inferred using beast and the isolation with migration (IM) model. Results There was no evidence to support the presence of the endemic Philippines species, A. limosus; instead, Philippine populations were closely related to, and derived from, A. vagus on the eastern Southeast Asian mainland. The most distinct populations were those from Java and East Timor, which differed from all other populations by all individuals having a 4-bp insertion in the ITS2 sequence. The corresponding mitochondrial haplotypes had an estimated divergence time of 2.6Ma [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.9-3.6Ma]. Haplotype networks and analysis of molecular variance for COI supported western (Sri Lanka, India and Myanmar) and eastern (Thailand, Singapore, Cambodia, Vietnam and the Philippines) population groupings. This grouping structure results from the divergence of an eastern and a western mitochondrial lineage, estimated to have occurred 0.37Ma (95% CI 0.26-0.55Ma). Subsequent migration from the east to the west (0.16Ma) is inferred to have created an admixture zone in Myanmar and Thailand. Main conclusions With the possible exception of populations from Java and East Timor, A. vagus appears to be one widespread genetically diverse taxon across its extensive range. The abundance of grassland during long interglacial periods may have facilitated population connectivity and range expansion across the Oriental and western Australasian regions. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Kawada H.,Nagasaki University | Oo S.Z.M.,Nagasaki University | Oo S.Z.M.,Medical Entomology Research Division | Thaung S.,Medical Entomology Research Division | And 5 more authors.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2014

Background:Single amino acid substitutions in the voltage-gated sodium channel associated with pyrethroid resistance constitute one of the main causative factors of knockdown resistance in insects. The kdr gene has been observed in several mosquito species; however, point mutations in the para gene of Aedes aegypti populations in Myanmar have not been fully characterized. The aim of the present study was to determine the types and frequencies of mutations in the para gene of Aedes aegypti collected from used tires in Yangon City, Myanmar.Methodology/Principal Findings:We determined high pyrethroid resistance in Aedes aegypti larvae at all collection sites in Yangon City, by using a simplified knockdown bioassay. We showed that V1016G and S989P mutations were widely distributed, with high frequencies (84.4% and 78.8%, respectively). By contrast, we were unable to detect I1011M (or I1011V) or L1014F mutations. F1534C mutations were also widely distributed, but with a lower frequency than the V1016G mutation (21.2%). High percentage of co-occurrence of the homozygous V1016G/S989P mutations was detected (65.7%). Additionally, co-occurrence of homozygous V1016G/F1534C mutations (2.9%) and homozygous V1016G/F1534C/S989P mutations (0.98%) were detected in the present study.Conclusions/Significance:Pyrethroid insecticides were first used for malaria control in 1992, and have since been constantly used in Myanmar. This intensive use may explain the strong selection pressure toward Aedes aegypti, because this mosquito is generally a domestic and endophagic species with a preference for indoor breeding. Extensive use of DDT for malaria control before the use of this chemical was banned may also explain the development of pyrethroid resistance in Aedes aegypti. © 2014 Kawada et al.

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