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Brabin B.J.,University of Amsterdam | Gies S.,Institute of Tropical Medicine | Owens S.,Northumbria Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust | Claeys Y.,Institute of Tropical Medicine | And 5 more authors.

Periconceptional supplementation could extend the period over which maternal and fetal nutrition is improved, but there are many challenges facing early-life intervention studies. Periconceptional trials differ from pregnancy supplementation trials, not only because of the very early or pre-gestational timing of nutrient exposure but also because they generate subsidiary information on participants who remain non-pregnant. The methodological challenges are more complex although, if well designed, they provide opportunities to evaluate concurrent hypotheses related to the health of non-pregnant women, especially nulliparous adolescents. This review examines the framework of published and ongoing randomised trial designs. Four cohorts typically arise from the periconceptional trial design - two of which are non-pregnant and two are pregnant - and this structure provides assessment options related to pre-pregnant, maternal, pregnancy and fetal outcomes. Conceptually the initial decision for single or micronutrient intervention is central - as is the choice of dosage and content - in order to establish a comparative framework across trials, improve standardisation, and facilitate interpretation of mechanistic hypotheses. Other trial features considered in the review include: measurement options for baseline and outcome assessments; adherence to long-term supplementation; sample size considerations in relation to duration of nutrient supplementation; cohort size for non-pregnant and pregnant cohorts as the latter is influenced by parity selection; integrating qualitative studies and data management issues. Emphasis is given to low resource settings where high infection rates and the possibility of nutrient-infection interactions may require appropriate safety monitoring. The focus is on pragmatic issues that may help investigators planning a periconceptional trial. © 2016 Brabin et al. Source

Edwards T.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Allen E.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Harding-Esch E.M.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Hart J.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | And 8 more authors.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases

Background: There is concern that untreated individuals in mass drug administration (MDA) programs for neglected tropical diseases can reduce the impact of elimination efforts by maintaining a source of transmission and re-infection. Methodology/Principal Findings: Treatment receipt was recorded against the community census during three MDAs with azithromycin for trachoma in The Gambia, a hypo-endemic setting. Predictors of non-participation were investigated in 1–9 year olds using random effects logistic regression of cross-sectional data for each MDA. Two types of non-participators were identified: present during MDA but not treated (PNT) and eligible for treatment but absent during MDA (EBA). PNT and EBA children were compared to treated children separately. Multivariable models were developed using baseline data and validated using year one and two data, with a priori adjustment for previous treatment status. Analyses included approximately 10000 children at baseline and 5000 children subsequently. There was strong evidence of spatial heterogeneity, and persistent non-participation within households and individuals. By year two, non-participation increased significantly to 10.4% overall from 6.2% at baseline, with more, smaller geographical clusters of non-participating households. Multivariable models suggested household level predictors of non-participation (increased time to water and household head non-participation for both PNT and EBA; increased household size for PNT status only; non-inclusion in a previous trachoma examination survey and younger age for EBA only). Enhanced coverage efforts did not decrease non-participation. Few infected children were detected at year three and only one infected child was EBA previously. Infected children were in communities close to untreated endemic areas with higher rates of EBA non-participation during MDA. Conclusions/Significance: In hypo-endemic settings, with good coverage and no association between non-participation and infection, efforts to improve participation during MDA may not be required. Further research could investigate spatial hotspots of infection and non-participation in other low and medium prevalence settings before allocating resources to increase participation. © 2014 Edwards et al. Source

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