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Zalwango F.,Medical Research Council Uganda Virus Research Institute MRC UVRI Uganda Research Unit on AIDS | Seeley J.,Medical Research Council Uganda Virus Research Institute MRC UVRI Uganda Research Unit on AIDS | Seeley J.,University of East Anglia | Scholten F.,Medical Research Council Uganda Virus Research Institute MRC UVRI Uganda Research Unit on AIDS
African Journal of AIDS Research | Year: 2013

This study explored how women's and men's gendered experiences from childhood to old age have shaped their vulnerability in relation to HIV both in terms of their individual risk of HIV and their access to and experiences of HIV services. It was a small scale-scale study conducted in urban and rural sites in Uganda between October 2011 and March 2012. The study used qualitative methods: in-depth interviews (with 31 participants) and focus group discussions (FGDs) with older women (2) and men (2) in urban and rural sites and 7 key informant interviews (KIIs) with stakeholders from government and non-government agencies working on HIV issues. Women's position, the cultural management of sex and gender and contextual stigma related to HIV and to old age inter-relate to produce particular areas of vulnerability to the HIV epidemic among older women and men. Women report the compounding factor of gender-based violence marking many of their sexual relationships throughout their lives, including in older age. Both women and men report extremely fragile livelihoods in their old age. Older people are exposed to HIV through multiple and intersecting drivers of risk and represent an often neglected population within health systems. Research and interventions need to go beyond only conceptualising older people as 'carers' to better address their gendered vulnerabilities to HIV in relation to all aspects of policy and programming. © 2013 Copyright © NISC (Pty) Ltd. Source


Riha J.,University of Cambridge | Riha J.,Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute | Karabarinde A.,Medical Research Council Uganda Virus Research Institute MRC UVRI Uganda Research Unit on AIDS | Ssenyomo G.,Medical Research Council Uganda Virus Research Institute MRC UVRI Uganda Research Unit on AIDS | And 11 more authors.
PLoS Medicine | Year: 2014

Background:Urban living is associated with unhealthy lifestyles that can increase the risk of cardiometabolic diseases. In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), where the majority of people live in rural areas, it is still unclear if there is a corresponding increase in unhealthy lifestyles as rural areas adopt urban characteristics. This study examines the distribution of urban characteristics across rural communities in Uganda and their associations with lifestyle risk factors for chronic diseases.Methods and Findings:Using data collected in 2011, we examined cross-sectional associations between urbanicity and lifestyle risk factors in rural communities in Uganda, with 7,340 participants aged 13 y and above across 25 villages. Urbanicity was defined according to a multi-component scale, and Poisson regression models were used to examine associations between urbanicity and lifestyle risk factors by quartile of urbanicity. Despite all of the villages not having paved roads and running water, there was marked variation in levels of urbanicity across the villages, largely attributable to differences in economic activity, civil infrastructure, and availability of educational and healthcare services. In regression models, after adjustment for clustering and potential confounders including socioeconomic status, increasing urbanicity was associated with an increase in lifestyle risk factors such as physical inactivity (risk ratio [RR]: 1.19; 95% CI: 1.14, 1.24), low fruit and vegetable consumption (RR: 1.17; 95% CI: 1.10, 1.23), and high body mass index (RR: 1.48; 95% CI: 1.24, 1.77).Conclusions:This study indicates that even across rural communities in SSA, increasing urbanicity is associated with a higher prevalence of lifestyle risk factors for cardiometabolic diseases. This finding highlights the need to consider the health impact of urbanization in rural areas across SSA.Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary. © 2014 Riha et al. Source


Kinyanda E.,Medical Research Council Uganda Virus Research Institute MRC UVRI Uganda Research Unit on AIDS | Waswa L.,Medical Research Council Uganda Virus Research Institute MRC UVRI Uganda Research Unit on AIDS | Baisley K.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Maher D.,Medical Research Council Uganda Virus Research Institute MRC UVRI Uganda Research Unit on AIDS | Maher D.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
BMC Psychiatry | Year: 2011

Background: The problem of severe mental distress (SMD) in sub-Saharan Africa is difficult to investigate given that a substantial proportion of patients with SMD never access formal health care.This study set out to investigate SMD and it's associated factors in a rural population-based cohort in south-west Uganda.Methods: 6,663 respondents aged 13 years and above in a general population cohort in southwestern Uganda were screened for probable SMD and possible associated factors.Results: 0.9% screened positive for probable SMD. The factors significantly associated with SMD included older age, male sex, low socio-economic status, being a current smoker, having multiple or no sexual partners in the past year, reported epilepsy and consulting a traditional healer.Conclusion: SMD in this study was associated with both socio-demographic and behavioural factors. The association between SMD and high risk sexual behaviour calls for the integration of HIV prevention in mental health care programmes in high HIV prevalence settings. © 2011 Kinyanda et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Kaleebu P.,Medical Research Council Uganda Virus Research Institute MRC UVRI Uganda Research Unit on AIDS | Kaleebu P.,Uganda Virus Research Institute | Kaleebu P.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Kamali A.,Medical Research Council Uganda Virus Research Institute MRC UVRI Uganda Research Unit on AIDS | And 7 more authors.
Tropical Medicine and International Health | Year: 2015

For the past 25 years, the Medical Research Council/Uganda Virus Research Institute Uganda Research Unit on AIDS has conducted research on HIV-1, coinfections and, more recently, on non-communicable diseases. Working with various partners, the research findings of the Unit have contributed to the understanding and control of the HIV epidemic both in Uganda and globally, and informed the future development of biomedical HIV interventions, health policy and practice. In this report, as we celebrate our silver jubilee, we describe some of these achievements and the Unit's multidisciplinary approach to research. We also discuss the future direction of the Unit; an exemplar of a partnership that has been largely funded from the north but led in the south. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

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