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Maitland K.,Imperial College London | Maitland K.,KEMRI Wellcome Trust Research Programme | George E.C.,Medical Research Council MRC Clinical Trials Unit | Evans J.A.,University of Cardiff | And 24 more authors.
BMC Medicine | Year: 2013

Background: Early rapid fluid resuscitation (boluses) in African children with severe febrile illnesses increases the 48-hour mortality by 3.3% compared with controls (no bolus). We explored the effect of boluses on 48-hour all-cause mortality by clinical presentation at enrolment, hemodynamic changes over the first hour, and on different modes of death, according to terminal clinical events. We hypothesize that boluses may cause excess deaths from neurological or respiratory events relating to fluid overload. Methods: Pre-defined presentation syndromes (PS; severe acidosis or severe shock, respiratory, neurological) and predominant terminal clinical events (cardiovascular collapse, respiratory, neurological) were described by randomized arm (bolus versus control) in 3,141 severely ill febrile children with shock enrolled in the Fluid Expansion as Supportive Therapy (FEAST) trial. Landmark analyses were used to compare early mortality in treatment groups, conditional on changes in shock and hypoxia parameters. Competing risks methods were used to estimate cumulative incidence curves and sub-hazard ratios to compare treatment groups in terms of terminal clinical events. Results: Of 2,396 out of 3,141 (76%) classifiable participants, 1,647 (69%) had a severe metabolic acidosis or severe shock PS, 625 (26%) had a respiratory PS and 976 (41%) had a neurological PS, either alone or in combination. Mortality was greatest among children fulfilling criteria for all three PS (28% bolus, 21% control) and lowest for lone respiratory (2% bolus, 5% control) or neurological (3% bolus, 0% control) presentations. Excess mortality in bolus arms versus control was apparent for all three PS, including all their component features. By one hour, shock had resolved (responders) more frequently in bolus versus control groups (43% versus 32%, P <0.001), but excess mortality with boluses was evident in responders (relative risk 1.98, 95% confidence interval 0.94 to 4.17, P = 0.06) and 'non-responders' (relative risk 1.67, 95% confidence interval 1.23 to 2.28, P = 0.001), with no evidence of heterogeneity (P = 0.68). The major difference between bolus and control arms was the higher proportion of cardiogenic or shock terminal clinical events in bolus arms (n = 123; 4.6% versus 2.6%, P = 0.008) rather than respiratory (n = 61; 2.2% versus 1.3%, P = 0.09) or neurological (n = 63, 2.1% versus 1.8%, P = 0.6) terminal clinical events. Conclusions: Excess mortality from boluses occurred in all subgroups of children. Contrary to expectation, cardiovascular collapse rather than fluid overload appeared to contribute most to excess deaths with rapid fluid resuscitation. These results should prompt a re-evaluation of evidence on fluid resuscitation for shock and a re-appraisal of the rate, composition and volume of resuscitation fluids.Trial registration: ISRCTN69856593. © 2013 Maitland et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Stanworth S.J.,University of Oxford | Estcourt L.J.,University of Oxford | Powter G.,University of Oxford | Powter G.,MRC Clinical Studies Unit | And 25 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2013

BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of platelet transfusions to prevent bleeding in patients with hematologic cancers remains unclear. This trial assessed whether a policy of not giving prophylactic platelet transfusions was as effective and safe as a policy of providing prophylaxis. METHODS: We conducted this randomized, open-label, noninferiority trial at 14 centers in the United Kingdom and Australia. Patients were randomly assigned to receive, or not to receive, prophylactic platelet transfusions when morning platelet counts were less than 10×109 per liter. Eligible patients were persons 16 years of age or older who were receiving chemotherapy or undergoing stem-cell transplantation and who had or were expected to have thrombocytopenia. The primary end point was bleeding of World Health Organization (WHO) grade 2, 3, or 4 up to 30 days after randomization. RESULTS: A total of 600 patients (301 in the no-prophylaxis group and 299 in the prophylaxis group) underwent randomization between 2006 and 2011. Bleeding of WHO grade 2, 3, or 4 occurred in 151 of 300 patients (50%) in the no-prophylaxis group, as compared with 128 of 298 (43%) in the prophylaxis group (adjusted difference in proportions, 8.4 percentage points; 90% confidence interval, 1.7 to 15.2; P = 0.06 for noninferiority). Patients in the no-prophylaxis group had more days with bleeding and a shorter time to the first bleeding episode than did patients in the prophylaxis group. Platelet use was markedly reduced in the no-prophylaxis group. A prespecified subgroup analysis identified similar rates of bleeding in the two study groups among patients undergoing autologous stem-cell transplantation. CONCLUSIONS: The results of our study support the need for the continued use of prophylaxis with platelet transfusion and show the benefit of such prophylaxis for reducing bleeding, as compared with no prophylaxis. A significant number of patients had bleeding despite prophylaxis. (Funded by the National Health Service Blood and Transplant Research and Development Committee and the Australian Red Cross Blood Service; TOPPS Controlled-Trials.com number, ISRCTN08758735.) Copyright © 2013 Massachusetts Medical Society.


Denning E.,University of Minnesota | Sharma S.,University of Minnesota | Smolskis M.,National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases | Touloumi G.,National and Kapodistrian University of Athens | And 9 more authors.
HIV Medicine | Year: 2015

Objectives: Efforts are needed to improve informed consent of participants in research. The Strategic Timing of AntiRetroviral Therapy (START) study provides a unique opportunity to study the effect of length and complexity of informed consent documents on understanding and satisfaction among geographically diverse participants. Methods: Interested START sites were randomized to use either the standard consent form or the concise consent form for all of the site's participants. Results: A total of 4473 HIV-positive participants at 154 sites world-wide took part in the Informed Consent Substudy, with consent given in 11 primary languages. Most sites sent written information to potential participants in advance of clinic visits, usually including the consent form. At about half the sites, staff reported spending less than an hour per participant in the consent process. The vast majority of sites assessed participant understanding using informal nonspecific questions or clinical judgment. Conclusions: These data reflect the interest of START research staff in evaluating the consent process and improving informed consent. The START Informed Consent Substudy is by far the largest study of informed consent intervention ever conducted. Its results have the potential to impact how consent forms are written around the world. © 2015 British HIV Association.


Phillips P.P.J.,Medical Research Council MRC Clinical Trials Unit | Gillespie S.H.,University of St. Andrews | Boeree M.,Radboud University Nijmegen | Heinrich N.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Infectious Diseases | Year: 2012

A growing number of new drugs for the treatment of tuberculosis are in clinical development. Confirmatory phase 3 trials are expensive and time-consuming and the question of whether one particular drug combination can be used to treat tuberculosis is less important from a public health perspective than the question of which are the shortest, simplest, most effective, and safest regimens. While preclinical and phase 1 studies provide some guidance in the selection of combinations for clinical evaluation, a large number of combinations will require phase 2 testing to ensure that only the best regimens advance to phase 3. The multi-arm multi-stage trial design is an example of a treatment selection-adaptive design where multiple experimental arms are each simultaneously compared with a common control and interim analyses allow for poor performing arms to be dropped early. Such designs, if designed and implemented correctly, require fewer patients, can be completed in a shorter time frame, and answer more relevant questions without any loss in statistical validity or scientific integrity. There are, however, practical issues that must be considered in applying this in tuberculosis treatment trials. More innovative trials designs should be considered to speed drug and regimen development for the treatment of tuberculosis. © 2012 The Author.


Howard R.,King's College London | McShane R.,Churchill Hospital | Lindesay J.,University of Leicester | Ritchie C.,Imperial College London | And 30 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2012

Background: Clinical trials have shown the benefits of cholinesterase inhibitors for the treatment of mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease. It is not known whether treatment benefits continue after the progression to moderate-to-severe disease. Methods: We assigned 295 community-dwelling patients who had been treated with donepezil for at least 3 months and who had moderate or severe Alzheimer's disease (a score of 5 to 13 on the Standardized Mini-Mental State Examination [SMMSE, on which scores range from 0 to 30, with higher scores indicating better cognitive function]) to continue donepezil, discontinue donepezil, discontinue donepezil and start memantine, or continue donepezil and start memantine. Patients received the study treatment for 52 weeks. The coprimary outcomes were scores on the SMMSE and on the Bristol Activities of Daily Living Scale (BADLS, on which scores range from 0 to 60, with higher scores indicating greater impairment). The minimum clinically important differences were 1.4 points on the SMMSE and 3.5 points on the BADLS. Results: Patients assigned to continue donepezil, as compared with those assigned to discontinue donepezil, had a score on the SMMSE that was higher by an average of 1.9 points (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3 to 2.5) and a score on the BADLS that was lower (indicating less impairment) by 3.0 points (95% CI, 1.8 to 4.3) (P<0.001 for both comparisons). Patients assigned to receive memantine, as compared with those assigned to receive memantine placebo, had a score on the SMMSE that was an average of 1.2 points higher (95% CI, 0.6 to 1.8; P<0.001) and a score on the BADLS that was 1.5 points lower (95% CI, 0.3 to 2.8; P = 0.02). The efficacy of donepezil and of memantine did not differ significantly in the presence or absence of the other. There were no significant benefits of the combination of donepezil and memantine over donepezil alone. Conclusions: In patients with moderate or severe Alzheimer's disease, continued treatment with donepezil was associated with cognitive benefits that exceeded the minimum clinically important difference and with significant functional benefits over the course of 12 months. (Funded by the U.K. Medical Research Council and the U.K. Alzheimer's Society; Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN49545035.) Copyright © 2012 Massachusetts Medical Society.


Fachal L.,Fundacion Publica Galega de Medicina Xenomica | Fachal L.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Gomez-Caamano A.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Barnett G.C.,University of Cambridge | And 20 more authors.
Nature Genetics | Year: 2014

There is increasing evidence supporting the role of genetic variants in the development of radiation-induced toxicity. However, previous candidate gene association studies failed to elucidate the common genetic variation underlying this phenotype, which could emerge years after the completion of treatment. We performed a genome-wide association study on a Spanish cohort of 741 individuals with prostate cancer treated with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). The replication cohorts consisted of 633 cases from the UK4 and 368 cases from North America. One locus comprising TANC1 (lowest unadjusted P value for overall late toxicity = 6.85 × 10-9, odds ratio (OR) = 6.61, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.23-19.63) was replicated in the second stage (lowest unadjusted P value for overall late toxicity = 2.08 × 1 -4, OR = 6.17, 95% CI = 2.25-16.95; Pcombined= 4.16 × 10-10). The inclusion of the third cohort gave unadjusted Pcombined= 4.64 × 10-9. These results, together with the role of TANC1 in regenerating damaged muscle, suggest that the TANC1 locus influences the development of late radiation-induced damage. © 2014 Nature America, Inc.


Barroso F.,Barts and the London Hospitals NHS Trust and NHS Blood and Transplant | Allard S.,Barts and the London Hospitals NHS Trust and NHS Blood and Transplant | Kahan B.C.,Medical Research Council MRC Clinical Trials Unit | Connolly C.,Ninewells Hospital | And 4 more authors.
European Journal of Obstetrics Gynecology and Reproductive Biology | Year: 2011

Objective: To investigate the prevalence, predictors, and management of anaemia in pregnancy. Study design: A multi centre study across 11 maternity units in the UK. Data were collected over a two week study period in 2008 on maternal history, haemoglobin (Hb) and ferritin concentrations, iron therapy during pregnancy and in the postpartum period. Logistic regression models were used to explore factors associated with anaemia during pregnancy. Main outcomes included anaemia, defined as Hb < 11 g/dl at booking, Hb < 10.5 g/dl in subsequent antenatal visits, and Hb < 10 g/dl postnatally. Results: Completed data were received on 2103 of 2155 women (97% completion rate). Of these, 24.4% (502) (95% CI 22.5-26.2%) were anaemic at some stage during the antenatal period. Predictors for having anaemia by 32 weeks gestation included young maternal age (odds ratio 1.96, 95% CI 1.38-2.79), non-white ethnic origin (odds ratios varied 1.37-2.89 depending on ethnic origin) and increasing parity (odds ratio 1.24, 95% CI 1.08-1.41). Of women who had postnatal Hb levels checked, 30% (309/1031) were anaemic and, depending on centre, 16% to 86% of these received iron therapy. Conclusion: Anaemia was reported in nearly one in four women in the antenatal period, and nearly one in three of the women who had a postpartum Hb checked. Despite national guidelines, there was considerable variation in administration of iron including low utilisation of parenteral iron therapy. Future research needs to focus on the consequences of iron deficiency anaemia for maternal and infant health outcomes and effectiveness of implementation strategies to reduce anaemia. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.


Madi A.,Freeman Hospital | Fisher D.,Medical Research Council MRC Clinical Trials Unit | Wilson R.H.,Queen's University of Belfast | Adams R.A.,Velindre Cancer Center | And 7 more authors.
British Journal of Cancer | Year: 2012

Background: COIN compared first-line continuous chemotherapy with the same chemotherapy given intermittently or with cetuximab in advanced colorectal cancer (aCRC). Methods: Choice between oxaliplatin/capecitabine (OxCap) and oxaliplatin/leucovorin (LV)/infusional 5-FU (OxFU) was by physician and patient choice and switching regimen was allowed. We compared OxCap with OxFU and OxCapcetuximab with OxFUcetuximab retrospectively in patients and examined efficacy, toxicity profiles and the effect of mild renal impairment. Results: In total, 64% of 2397 patients received OxCap(cetuximab). Overall survival, progression free survival and overall response rate were similar between OxCap and OxFU but rate of radical surgeries was higher for OxFU. Progression free survival was longer for OxFU±cetuximab compared with OxCapcetuximab but other efficacy measures were similar. Oxaliplatin/LV/infusional 5-FU (cetuximab) was associated with more mucositis and infection whereas OxCap(cetuximab) caused more gastrointestinal toxicities and palmar-plantar erythema. In total, 118 patients switched regimen, mainly due to toxicity; only 16% came off their second regimen due to intolerance. Patients with creatinine clearance (CrCl) 50-80 ml min 1 on OxCap(cetuximab) or OxFUcetuximab had more dose modifications than those with better renal function.Conclusions:Overall, OxFU and OxCap are equally effective in treating aCRC. However, the toxicity profiles differ and switching from one regimen to the other for poor tolerance is a reasonable option. Patients with CrCl 50-80 ml min 1 on both regimens require close toxicity monitoring. © 2012 Cancer Research UK All rights reserved.


Olupot-Olupot P.,Mbale Regional Referral Hospital | Engoru C.,Soroti Regional Referral Hospital | Thompson J.,Medical Research Council MRC Clinical Trials Unit | Nteziyaremye J.,Medical Research Council MRC Clinical Trials Unit | And 16 more authors.
BMC Medicine | Year: 2014

Background: Severe anemia (SA, hemoglobin <6 g/dl) is a leading cause of pediatric hospital admission in Africa, with significant in-hospital mortality. The underlying etiology is often infectious, but specific pathogens are rarely identified. Guidelines developed to encourage rational blood use recommend a standard volume of whole blood (20 ml/kg) for transfusion, but this is commonly associated with a frequent need for repeat transfusion and poor outcome. Evidence is lacking on what hemoglobin threshold criteria for intervention and volume are associated with the optimal survival outcomes.Methods: We evaluated the safety and efficacy of a higher volume of whole blood (30 ml/kg; Tx30: n = 78) against the standard volume (20 ml/kg; Tx20: n = 82) in Ugandan children (median age 36 months (interquartile range (IQR) 13 to 53)) for 24-hour anemia correction (hemoglobin >6 g/dl: primary outcome) and 28-day survival.Results: Median admission hemoglobin was 4.2 g/dl (IQR 3.1 to 4.9). Initial volume received followed the randomization strategy in 155 (97%) patients. By 24-hours, 70 (90%) children in the Tx30 arm had corrected SA compared to 61 (74%) in the Tx20 arm; cause-specific hazard ratio = 1.54 (95% confidence interval 1.09 to 2.18, P = 0.01). From admission to day 28 there was a greater hemoglobin increase from enrollment in Tx30 (global P <0.0001). Serious adverse events included one non-fatal allergic reaction and one death in the Tx30 arm. There were six deaths in the Tx20 arm (P = 0.12); three deaths were adjudicated as possibly related to transfusion, but none secondary to volume overload.Conclusion: A higher initial transfusion volume prescribed at hospital admission was safe and resulted in an accelerated hematological recovery in Ugandan children with SA. Future testing in a large, pragmatic clinical trial to establish the effect on short and longer-term survival is warranted.Please see related commentary article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/12/68/abstract.Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.Gov identifier: NCT01461590 registered 26 October 2011. © 2014 Olupot-Olupot et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


PubMed | King Abdulaziz University, University Institute of Health Sciences, University of Santiago de Compostela, Medical Research Council MRC Clinical Trials Unit and 3 more.
Type: Clinical Trial | Journal: Nature genetics | Year: 2014

There is increasing evidence supporting the role of genetic variants in the development of radiation-induced toxicity. However, previous candidate gene association studies failed to elucidate the common genetic variation underlying this phenotype, which could emerge years after the completion of treatment. We performed a genome-wide association study on a Spanish cohort of 741 individuals with prostate cancer treated with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). The replication cohorts consisted of 633 cases from the UK and 368 cases from North America. One locus comprising TANC1 (lowest unadjusted P value for overall late toxicity=6.8510(-9), odds ratio (OR)=6.61, 95% confidence interval (CI)=2.23-19.63) was replicated in the second stage (lowest unadjusted P value for overall late toxicity=2.0810(-4), OR=6.17, 95% CI=2.25-16.95; Pcombined=4.1610(-10)). The inclusion of the third cohort gave unadjusted Pcombined=4.6410(-11). These results, together with the role of TANC1 in regenerating damaged muscle, suggest that the TANC1 locus influences the development of late radiation-induced damage.

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