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Fachal L.,Fundacion Publica Galega de Medicina Xenomica | Fachal L.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Gomez-Caamano A.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Barnett G.C.,University of Cambridge | And 20 more authors.
Nature Genetics

There is increasing evidence supporting the role of genetic variants in the development of radiation-induced toxicity. However, previous candidate gene association studies failed to elucidate the common genetic variation underlying this phenotype, which could emerge years after the completion of treatment. We performed a genome-wide association study on a Spanish cohort of 741 individuals with prostate cancer treated with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). The replication cohorts consisted of 633 cases from the UK4 and 368 cases from North America. One locus comprising TANC1 (lowest unadjusted P value for overall late toxicity = 6.85 × 10-9, odds ratio (OR) = 6.61, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.23-19.63) was replicated in the second stage (lowest unadjusted P value for overall late toxicity = 2.08 × 1 -4, OR = 6.17, 95% CI = 2.25-16.95; Pcombined= 4.16 × 10-10). The inclusion of the third cohort gave unadjusted Pcombined= 4.64 × 10-9. These results, together with the role of TANC1 in regenerating damaged muscle, suggest that the TANC1 locus influences the development of late radiation-induced damage. © 2014 Nature America, Inc. Source

Phillips P.P.J.,Medical Research Council MRC Clinical Trials Unit | Gillespie S.H.,University of St. Andrews | Boeree M.,Radboud University Nijmegen | Heinrich N.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Infectious Diseases

A growing number of new drugs for the treatment of tuberculosis are in clinical development. Confirmatory phase 3 trials are expensive and time-consuming and the question of whether one particular drug combination can be used to treat tuberculosis is less important from a public health perspective than the question of which are the shortest, simplest, most effective, and safest regimens. While preclinical and phase 1 studies provide some guidance in the selection of combinations for clinical evaluation, a large number of combinations will require phase 2 testing to ensure that only the best regimens advance to phase 3. The multi-arm multi-stage trial design is an example of a treatment selection-adaptive design where multiple experimental arms are each simultaneously compared with a common control and interim analyses allow for poor performing arms to be dropped early. Such designs, if designed and implemented correctly, require fewer patients, can be completed in a shorter time frame, and answer more relevant questions without any loss in statistical validity or scientific integrity. There are, however, practical issues that must be considered in applying this in tuberculosis treatment trials. More innovative trials designs should be considered to speed drug and regimen development for the treatment of tuberculosis. © 2012 The Author. Source

Madi A.,Northern Center for Cancer Care | Fisher D.,Medical Research Council MRC Clinical Trials Unit | Wilson R.H.,Queens University of Belfast | Adams R.A.,Velindre Cancer Center | And 7 more authors.
British Journal of Cancer

Background: COIN compared first-line continuous chemotherapy with the same chemotherapy given intermittently or with cetuximab in advanced colorectal cancer (aCRC). Methods: Choice between oxaliplatin/capecitabine (OxCap) and oxaliplatin/leucovorin (LV)/infusional 5-FU (OxFU) was by physician and patient choice and switching regimen was allowed. We compared OxCap with OxFU and OxCapcetuximab with OxFUcetuximab retrospectively in patients and examined efficacy, toxicity profiles and the effect of mild renal impairment. Results: In total, 64% of 2397 patients received OxCap(cetuximab). Overall survival, progression free survival and overall response rate were similar between OxCap and OxFU but rate of radical surgeries was higher for OxFU. Progression free survival was longer for OxFU±cetuximab compared with OxCapcetuximab but other efficacy measures were similar. Oxaliplatin/LV/infusional 5-FU (cetuximab) was associated with more mucositis and infection whereas OxCap(cetuximab) caused more gastrointestinal toxicities and palmar-plantar erythema. In total, 118 patients switched regimen, mainly due to toxicity; only 16% came off their second regimen due to intolerance. Patients with creatinine clearance (CrCl) 50-80 ml min 1 on OxCap(cetuximab) or OxFUcetuximab had more dose modifications than those with better renal function.Conclusions:Overall, OxFU and OxCap are equally effective in treating aCRC. However, the toxicity profiles differ and switching from one regimen to the other for poor tolerance is a reasonable option. Patients with CrCl 50-80 ml min 1 on both regimens require close toxicity monitoring. © 2012 Cancer Research UK All rights reserved. Source

Howard R.,Kings College London | McShane R.,Fulbrook Center | Lindesay J.,University of Leicester | Ritchie C.,Imperial College London | And 29 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine

Background: Clinical trials have shown the benefits of cholinesterase inhibitors for the treatment of mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease. It is not known whether treatment benefits continue after the progression to moderate-to-severe disease. Methods: We assigned 295 community-dwelling patients who had been treated with donepezil for at least 3 months and who had moderate or severe Alzheimer's disease (a score of 5 to 13 on the Standardized Mini-Mental State Examination [SMMSE, on which scores range from 0 to 30, with higher scores indicating better cognitive function]) to continue donepezil, discontinue donepezil, discontinue donepezil and start memantine, or continue donepezil and start memantine. Patients received the study treatment for 52 weeks. The coprimary outcomes were scores on the SMMSE and on the Bristol Activities of Daily Living Scale (BADLS, on which scores range from 0 to 60, with higher scores indicating greater impairment). The minimum clinically important differences were 1.4 points on the SMMSE and 3.5 points on the BADLS. Results: Patients assigned to continue donepezil, as compared with those assigned to discontinue donepezil, had a score on the SMMSE that was higher by an average of 1.9 points (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3 to 2.5) and a score on the BADLS that was lower (indicating less impairment) by 3.0 points (95% CI, 1.8 to 4.3) (P<0.001 for both comparisons). Patients assigned to receive memantine, as compared with those assigned to receive memantine placebo, had a score on the SMMSE that was an average of 1.2 points higher (95% CI, 0.6 to 1.8; P<0.001) and a score on the BADLS that was 1.5 points lower (95% CI, 0.3 to 2.8; P = 0.02). The efficacy of donepezil and of memantine did not differ significantly in the presence or absence of the other. There were no significant benefits of the combination of donepezil and memantine over donepezil alone. Conclusions: In patients with moderate or severe Alzheimer's disease, continued treatment with donepezil was associated with cognitive benefits that exceeded the minimum clinically important difference and with significant functional benefits over the course of 12 months. (Funded by the U.K. Medical Research Council and the U.K. Alzheimer's Society; Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN49545035.) Copyright © 2012 Massachusetts Medical Society. Source

Stanworth S.J.,University of Oxford | Estcourt L.J.,University of Oxford | Powter G.,University of Oxford | Powter G.,MRC Clinical Studies Unit | And 25 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine

BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of platelet transfusions to prevent bleeding in patients with hematologic cancers remains unclear. This trial assessed whether a policy of not giving prophylactic platelet transfusions was as effective and safe as a policy of providing prophylaxis. METHODS: We conducted this randomized, open-label, noninferiority trial at 14 centers in the United Kingdom and Australia. Patients were randomly assigned to receive, or not to receive, prophylactic platelet transfusions when morning platelet counts were less than 10×109 per liter. Eligible patients were persons 16 years of age or older who were receiving chemotherapy or undergoing stem-cell transplantation and who had or were expected to have thrombocytopenia. The primary end point was bleeding of World Health Organization (WHO) grade 2, 3, or 4 up to 30 days after randomization. RESULTS: A total of 600 patients (301 in the no-prophylaxis group and 299 in the prophylaxis group) underwent randomization between 2006 and 2011. Bleeding of WHO grade 2, 3, or 4 occurred in 151 of 300 patients (50%) in the no-prophylaxis group, as compared with 128 of 298 (43%) in the prophylaxis group (adjusted difference in proportions, 8.4 percentage points; 90% confidence interval, 1.7 to 15.2; P = 0.06 for noninferiority). Patients in the no-prophylaxis group had more days with bleeding and a shorter time to the first bleeding episode than did patients in the prophylaxis group. Platelet use was markedly reduced in the no-prophylaxis group. A prespecified subgroup analysis identified similar rates of bleeding in the two study groups among patients undergoing autologous stem-cell transplantation. CONCLUSIONS: The results of our study support the need for the continued use of prophylaxis with platelet transfusion and show the benefit of such prophylaxis for reducing bleeding, as compared with no prophylaxis. A significant number of patients had bleeding despite prophylaxis. (Funded by the National Health Service Blood and Transplant Research and Development Committee and the Australian Red Cross Blood Service; TOPPS Controlled-Trials.com number, ISRCTN08758735.) Copyright © 2013 Massachusetts Medical Society. Source

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