Medical Research Council Mammalian Genetics Unit and Mary Lyon Center

Science and, United Kingdom

Medical Research Council Mammalian Genetics Unit and Mary Lyon Center

Science and, United Kingdom
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Esapa C.T.,University of Oxford | Esapa C.T.,Medical Research Council Mammalian Genetics Unit and Mary Lyon Center | Head R.A.,University of Oxford | Head R.A.,Medical Research Council Mammalian Genetics Unit and Mary Lyon Center | And 13 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Mutations of UDP-N-acetyl-alpha-D-galactosamine polypeptide N-acetyl galactosaminyl transferase 3 (GALNT3) result in familial tumoural calcinosis (FTC) and the hyperostosis-hyperphosphataemia syndrome (HHS), which are autosomal recessive disorders characterised by soft-tissue calcification and hyperphosphataemia. To facilitate in vivo studies of these heritable disorders of phosphate homeostasis, we embarked on establishing a mouse model by assessing progeny of mice treated with the chemical mutagen N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU), and identified a mutant mouse, TCAL, with autosomal recessive inheritance of ectopic calcification, which involved multiple tissues, and hyperphosphataemia; the phenotype was designated TCAL and the locus, Tcal. TCAL males were infertile with loss of Sertoli cells and spermatozoa, and increased testicular apoptosis. Genetic mapping localized Tcal to chromosome 2 (62.64-71.11 Mb) which contained the Galnt3. DNA sequence analysis identified a Galnt3 missense mutation (Trp589Arg) in TCAL mice. Transient transfection of wild-type and mutant Galnt3-enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) constructs in COS-7 cells revealed endoplasmic reticulum retention of the Trp589Arg mutant and Western blot analysis of kidney homogenates demonstrated defective glycosylation of Galnt3 in Tcal/Tcal mice. Tcal/Tcal mice had normal plasma calcium and parathyroid hormone concentrations; decreased alkaline phosphatase activity and intact Fgf23 concentrations; and elevation of circulating 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. Quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR (qRT-PCR) revealed that Tcal/Tcal mice had increased expression of Galnt3 and Fgf23 in bone, but that renal expression of Klotho, 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1α-hydroxylase (Cyp27b1), and the sodium-phosphate co-transporters type-IIa and -IIc was similar to that in wild-type mice. Thus, TCAL mice have the phenotypic features of FTC and HHS, and provide a model for these disorders of phosphate metabolism. © 2012 Esapa et al.


Esapa C.T.,University of Oxford | Esapa C.T.,Medical Research Council Mammalian Genetics Unit and Mary Lyon Center | Hannan F.M.,University of Oxford | Hannan F.M.,University of Liverpool | And 8 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Ectopic calcification (EC), which is the pathological deposition of calcium and phosphate in extra-skeletal tissues, may be associated with hypercalcaemic and hyperphosphataemic disorders, or it may occur in the absence of metabolic abnormalities. In addition, EC may be inherited as part of several monogenic disorders and studies of these have provided valuable insights into the metabolic pathways regulating mineral metabolism. For example, studies of tumoural calcinosis, a disorder characterised by hyperphosphataemia and progressive EC, have revealed mutations of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), polypeptide N-acetyl galactosaminyltransferase 3 (GALNT3) and klotho (KL), which are all part of a phosphate-regulating pathway. However, such studies in humans are limited by the lack of available large families with EC, and to facilitate such studies we assessed the progeny of mice treated with the chemical mutagen N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) for EC. This identified two mutants with autosomal recessive forms of EC, and reduced lifespan, designated Ecalc1 and Ecalc2. Genetic mapping localized the Ecalc1 and Ecalc2 loci to a 11.0 Mb region on chromosome 5 that contained the klotho gene (Kl), and DNA sequence analysis identified nonsense (Gln203Stop) and missense (Ile604Asn) Kl mutations in Ecalc1 and Ecalc2 mice, respectively. The Gln203Stop mutation, located in KL1 domain, was severely hypomorphic and led to a 17-fold reduction of renal Kl expression. The Ile604Asn mutation, located in KL2 domain, was predicted to impair klotho protein stability and in vitro expression studies in COS-7 cells revealed endoplasmic reticulum retention of the Ile604Asn mutant. Further phenotype studies undertaken in Ecalc1 (kl203X/203X) mice demonstrated elevations in plasma concentrations of phosphate, FGF23 and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. Thus, two allelic variants of Kl that develop EC and represent mouse models for tumoural calcinosis have been established. © 2015 Esapa et al.


PubMed | University of Queensland, University of Liverpool, University of Oxford, Garvan Institute of Medical Research and Medical Research Council Mammalian Genetics Unit and Mary Lyon Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015

Ectopic calcification (EC), which is the pathological deposition of calcium and phosphate in extra-skeletal tissues, may be associated with hypercalcaemic and hyperphosphataemic disorders, or it may occur in the absence of metabolic abnormalities. In addition, EC may be inherited as part of several monogenic disorders and studies of these have provided valuable insights into the metabolic pathways regulating mineral metabolism. For example, studies of tumoural calcinosis, a disorder characterised by hyperphosphataemia and progressive EC, have revealed mutations of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), polypeptide N-acetyl galactosaminyltransferase 3 (GALNT3) and klotho (KL), which are all part of a phosphate-regulating pathway. However, such studies in humans are limited by the lack of available large families with EC, and to facilitate such studies we assessed the progeny of mice treated with the chemical mutagen N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) for EC. This identified two mutants with autosomal recessive forms of EC, and reduced lifespan, designated Ecalc1 and Ecalc2. Genetic mapping localized the Ecalc1 and Ecalc2 loci to a 11.0 Mb region on chromosome 5 that contained the klotho gene (Kl), and DNA sequence analysis identified nonsense (Gln203Stop) and missense (Ile604Asn) Kl mutations in Ecalc1 and Ecalc2 mice, respectively. The Gln203Stop mutation, located in KL1 domain, was severely hypomorphic and led to a 17-fold reduction of renal Kl expression. The Ile604Asn mutation, located in KL2 domain, was predicted to impair klotho protein stability and in vitro expression studies in COS-7 cells revealed endoplasmic reticulum retention of the Ile604Asn mutant. Further phenotype studies undertaken in Ecalc1 (kl203X/203X) mice demonstrated elevations in plasma concentrations of phosphate, FGF23 and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. Thus, two allelic variants of Kl that develop EC and represent mouse models for tumoural calcinosis have been established.

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