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Roberts L.D.,Medical Research Council MRC Human Nutrition Research HNR | Roberts L.D.,University of Cambridge | Koulman A.,Medical Research Council MRC Human Nutrition Research HNR | Koulman A.,University of Cambridge | And 2 more authors.
The Lancet Diabetes and Endocrinology | Year: 2014

The complex aetiology of type 2 diabetes makes effective screening, diagnosis and prognosis a substantial challenge for the physician. The rapidly developing area of metabolomics, which uses analytical techniques such as mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance, has emerged as a promising approach to identify biomarkers of diabetes and the insulin-resistant state that precedes overt pathology. Initial successes with metabolomic studies have indicated potential biomarkers for insulin resistance and for identifying people at risk of developing diabetes, with particular focus on aminoacids and lipid metabolism. These biomarkers will help to improve research and management of diabetes. In particular, several biomarkers identified could be used for early identification of diabetes risk. Furthermore, changes in selected biomarkers can indicate effectiveness of therapeutic interventions for type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. Indeed, there is much promise that branched-chain aminoacids might provide a screening biomarker for type 2 diabetes risk, allowing early dietary and exercise interventions to treat or even prevent the disease. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

PubMed | The Need for Nutrition Education Innovation Programme NNEdPro, University of Parma and Medical Research Council MRC Human Nutrition Research HNR
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Nutrition, metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases : NMCD | Year: 2014

Vascular and endothelial dysfunction (VED) is emerging as a potential set of early markers of cardiovascular disease risk and tests for its measurement have been widely used in clinical research. The aim of this viewpoint is to describe and discuss the current usage of these measures in well-designed nutritional trials, using the potential relationship between fruit juice intake and VED as example. A search was conducted using the NHS evidence portal including studies published in English between January 1980 and October 2013. Only 10 suitable studies were selected, which investigated the effect of fruit juice intake on VED, among which 4 interventions used flow-mediated dilatation, 2 arterial stiffness, 2 a combination of arterial stiffness and flow-mediated dilatation, 2 carotid intimal media thickness and 1 iontophoresis with laser Doppler. Despite minimal effects reported on classical CVD markers, such as lipids, 8 out of the 10 identified studies reported an effect on endothelial function following juice consumption, indicating that VED tests can be effectively used in human dietary interventions to identify relationships between bioactive compounds from fruit and CVD risk. However, paucity of available data, scarcity of compound bioavailability and metabolism information, strong heterogeneity among experimental methodologies and a number of limitations to study designs, still limit the interpretation of the results obtained through these measures. Future, well-designed studies with greater attention to consider use of VED measures are needed to strengthen the utility of VED tests in nutrition research such as those investigating the impact of polyphenol-rich juices and CVD risk.

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