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Rispens T.,Sanquin Research | Rispens T.,University of Amsterdam | Davies A.M.,Kings College London | Davies A.M.,Medical Research Council and Asthma Center in Allergic Mechanisms of Asthma | And 12 more authors.
Journal of Biological Chemistry

Interdomain interactions between the CH3 domains of anti-body heavy chains are the first step in antibody assembly and are of prime importance for maintaining the native structure of IgG. For human IgG4 it was shown that CH3-CH3 interactions are weak, resulting in the potential for half-molecule exchange ("Fab arm exchange"). Here we systematically investigated non-covalent interchain interactions for CH3 domains in the other human subclasses, including polymorphisms (allotypes), using real-time monitoring of Fab arm exchange with a FRET-based kinetic assay.Weidentified structural variation between human IgG subclasses and allotypes at three amino acid positions (Lys/Asn-392, Val/Met-397, Lys/Arg-409) to alter the strength of inter-domain interactions by >6 orders of magnitude. Each substitution affected the interactions independent from the other substitutions in terms of affinity, but the enthalpic and entropic contributions were non-additive, suggesting a complex inter-play. Allotypic variation in IgG3 resulted in widely different CH3 interaction strengths that were even weaker for IgG3 than for IgG4 in the case of allotype G3m(c3c5*/6,24*), whereas G3m(s*/15*) was equally stable to IgG1. These interactions are sufficiently strong to maintain the structural integrity of IgG1 during its normal life span; for IgG2 and IgG3 the inter-heavy chain disulfide bonds are essential to prevent half-molecule dissociation, whereas the labile hinge disulfide bonds favor half-molecule exchange in vivo for IgG4. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc. Source

Sutton B.J.,Kings College London | Sutton B.J.,Medical Research Council and Asthma Center in Allergic Mechanisms of Asthma | Davies A.M.,Kings College London | Davies A.M.,Medical Research Council and Asthma Center in Allergic Mechanisms of Asthma
Immunological Reviews

Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is well known for its role in allergic disease, the manifestations of which are mediated through its two Fc receptors, FcεRI and CD23 (FcεRII). IgE and its interactions with these receptors are therefore potential targets for therapeutic intervention, and exciting progress has been made in this direction. Furthermore, recent structural studies of IgE-Fc, the two receptors, and of their complexes, have revealed a remarkable degree of plasticity at the IgE-CD23 interface and an even more remarkable degree of dynamic flexibility within the IgE molecule. Indeed, there is allosteric communication between the two receptor-binding sites, which we now know are located at some distance from each other in IgE-Fc (at opposite ends of the Cε3 domain). The conformational changes associated with FcεRI and CD23 binding to IgE-Fc ensure that their interactions are mutually incompatible, and it may be that this functional imperative has driven IgE to evolve such a dynamic structure. Appreciation of these new structural data has revised our view of IgE structure, shed light on the co-evolution of antibodies and their receptors, and may open up new therapeutic opportunities. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

Davies A.M.,Kings College London | Davies A.M.,Medical Research Council and Asthma Center in Allergic Mechanisms of Asthma | Rispens T.,Sanquin Research | Rispens T.,University of Amsterdam | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Molecular Biology

Human IgG4, normally the least abundant of the four subclasses of IgG in serum, displays a number of unique biological properties. It can undergo heavy-chain exchange, also known as Fab-arm exchange, leading to the formation of monovalent but bispecific antibodies, and it interacts poorly with FcγRII and FcγRIII, and complement. These properties render IgG4 relatively "non-inflammatory" and have made it a suitable format for therapeutic monoclonal antibody production. However, IgG4 is also known to undergo Fc-mediated aggregation and has been implicated in auto-immune disease pathology. We report here the high-resolution crystal structures, at 1.9 and 2.35 Å, respectively, of human recombinant and serum-derived IgG4-Fc. These structures reveal conformational variability at the CH3-C H3 interface that may promote Fab-arm exchange, and a unique conformation for the FG loop in the CH2 domain that would explain the poor FcγRII, FcγRIII and C1q binding properties of IgG4 compared with IgG1 and -3. In contrast to other IgG subclasses, this unique conformation folds the FG loop away from the CH2 domain, precluding any interaction with the lower hinge region, which may further facilitate Fab-arm exchange by destabilisation of the hinge. The crystals of IgG4-Fc also display Fc-Fc packing contacts with very extensive interaction surfaces, involving both a consensus binding site in IgG-Fc at the CH2-CH3 interface and known hydrophobic aggregation motifs. These Fc-Fc interactions are compatible with intact IgG4 molecules and may provide a model for the formation of aggregates of IgG4 that can cause disease pathology in the absence of antigen. © 2013 The Authors. Source

Ritchie A.I.,Imperial College London | Ritchie A.I.,Medical Research Council and Asthma Center in Allergic Mechanisms of Asthma | Jackson D.J.,Guys and St. Thomas National Health Service Trust | Edwards M.R.,Imperial College London | And 3 more authors.
Annals of the American Thoracic Society

Asthma is a very common respiratory condition with a worldwide prevalence predicted to increase. There are significant differences in airway epithelial responses in asthma that are of particular interest during exacerbations. Preventing exacerbations is a primary aim when treating asthma because they often necessitate unscheduled healthcare visits and hospitalizations and are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. The most common cause of asthma exacerbations is a respiratory virus infection, of which the most likely type is rhinovirus infection. This article focuses on the role played by the epithelium in orchestrating the innate immune responses to respiratory virus infection. Recent studies show impaired bronchial epithelial cell innate antiviral immune responses, as well as augmentation of a pro-Th2 response characterized by the epithelial-derived cytokines IL-25 and IL-33, crucial in maintaining the Th2 cytokine response to virus infection in asthma. A better understanding of the mechanisms of these abnormal immune responses has the potential to lead to the development of novel therapeutic targets for virus-induced exacerbations. The aim of this article is to highlight current knowledge regarding the role of viruses and immune modulation in the asthmatic epithelium and to discuss exciting areas for future research and novel treatments. Copyright © 2016 by the American Thoracic Society. Source

Zdrenghea M.T.,Ion Chiricuta Oncology Institute | Zdrenghea M.T.,University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca | Makrinioti H.,Imperial College London | Makrinioti H.,Medical Research Council and Asthma Center in Allergic Mechanisms of Asthma | And 9 more authors.
Reviews in Medical Virology

Summary: Activation through different signaling pathways results in two functionally different types of macrophages, the pro-inflammatory (M1) and the anti-inflammatory (M2). The polarization of macrophages toward the pro-inflammatory M1 phenotype is considered to be critical for efficient antiviral immune responses in the lung. Among the various cell types that are present in the asthmatic airways, macrophages have emerged as significant participants in disease pathogenesis, because of their activation during both the inflammatory and resolution phases, with an impact on disease progression. Polarized M1 and M2 macrophages are able to reversibly undergo functional redifferentiation into anti-inflammatory or pro-inflammatory macrophages, respectively, and therefore, macrophages mediate both processes. Recent studies have indicated a predominance of M2 macrophages in asthmatic airways. During a virus infection, it is likely that M2 macrophages would secrete higher amounts of the suppressor cytokine IL-10, and less innate IFNs. However, the interactions between IL-10 and innate IFNs during virus-induced exacerbations of asthma have not been well studied. The possible role of IL-10 as a therapy in allergic asthma has already been suggested, but the divergent roles of this suppressor molecule in the antiviral immune response raise concerns. This review attempts to shed light on macrophage IL-10-IFNs interactions and discusses the role of IL-10 in virus-induced asthma exacerbations. Whereas IL-10 is important in terminating pro-inflammatory and antiviral immune responses, the presence of this immune regulatory cytokine at the beginning of virus infection could impair the response to viruses and play a role in virus-induced asthma exacerbations. © 2014 The Authors. Source

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