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Chang-hua, Taiwan

Chi H.-C.,Chang Gung University | Liao C.-H.,Chang Gung University | Huang Y.-H.,Medical Research Central | Wu S.-M.,Chang Gung University | And 9 more authors.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications | Year: 2013

Triiodothyronine (T3) is a potent form of thyroid hormone mediates several physiological processes including cellular growth, development, and differentiation via binding to the nuclear thyroid hormone receptor (TR). Recent studies have demonstrated critical roles of T3/TR in tumor progression. Moreover, long-term hypothyroidism appears to be associated with the incidence of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), independent of other major HCC risk factors. Dickkopf (DKK) 4, a secreted protein that antagonizes the canonical Wnt signaling pathway, is induced by T3 at both mRNA and protein levels in HCC cell lines. However, the mechanism underlying T3-mediated regulation of DKK4 remains unknown. In the present study, the 5' promoter region of DKK4 was serially deleted, and the reporter assay performed to localize the T3 response element (TRE). Consequently, we identified an atypical direct repeat TRE between nucleotides -1645 and -1629 conferring T3 responsiveness to the DKK4 gene. This region was further validated using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). Stable DKK4 overexpression in SK-Hep-1 cells suppressed cell invasion and metastatic potential, both in vivo andin vitro, via reduction of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) expression. Our findings collectively suggest that DKK4 upregulated by T3/TR antagonizes the Wnt signal pathway to suppress tumor cell progression, thus providing new insights into the molecular mechanism underlying thyroid hormone activity in HCC. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Liao C.-H.,Chang Gung University | Yeh C.-T.,Liver Research Unit | Huang Y.-H.,Medical Research Central | Wu S.-M.,Chang Gung University | And 11 more authors.
Hepatology | Year: 2012

Thyroid hormone (T 3) mediates cellular growth, development, and differentiation by binding to the nuclear thyroid hormone receptor (TR). Recent studies suggest that long-term hypothyroidism is associated with human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) independent from other major HCC risk factors. Dickkopf (DKK) 4, a secreted protein, antagonizes the Wnt signal pathway. In this study, we demonstrate that T 3 may play a suppressor role by inducing DKK4 expression in HCC cells at both the messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels. DKK4 was down-regulated in 67.5% of HCC cancerous tissues. The decrease in DKK4 levels was accompanied by a concomitant decrease in TR protein levels in the matched cancerous tissues in 31% of tissues compared by immunoblotting with the adjacent noncancerous tissues. Further, TR and DKK4 expression levels were positively correlated in both normal and cancerous specimens by tissue array analysis. In function assays, stable DKK4 transfected into J7 or HepG2 cells decreased cell invasion in vitro. Conversely, knocking down DKK4 restores cell invasiveness. DKK4-expressing J7 clones showed increased degradation of β-catenin, but down-regulation of CD44, cyclin D1, and c-Jun. To investigate the effect of DKK4 and TR on tumor growth in vivo, we established a xenograft of J7 cells in nude mice. J7-DKK4 and J7-TRα1 overexpressing mice, which displayed growth arrest, lower lung colony formation index, and smaller tumor size than in control mice, supporting an inhibitory role of DKK4 in tumor progression. Conclusion: Taken together, these data suggest that the TR/DKK4/Wnt/β-catenin cascade influences the proliferation and migration of hepatoma cells during the metastasis process and support a tumor suppressor role of the TR. (Hepatology 2012) © 2011 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

Chen G.-Y.,Chang Gung University | Chi L.-M.,Chang Gung University | Chi H.-C.,Chang Gung University | Tsai M.-M.,Chang Gung University | And 6 more authors.
Molecular and Cellular Proteomics | Year: 2012

The thyroid hormone, 3, 3′,5-triiodo-L-thyronine (T 3), regulates cell growth, development, differentiation, and metabolism via interactions with thyroid hormone receptors (TRs). However, the secreted proteins that are regulated by T 3 are yet to be characterized. In this study, we used the quantitative proteomic approach of stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture coupled with nano-liquid chromatography-tandem MS performed on a LTQ-Orbitrap instrument to identify and characterize the T 3-regulated proteins secreted in human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines overexpressing TRα1 (HepG2-TRα1). In total, 1742 and 1714 proteins were identified and quantified, respectively, in three independent experiments. Among these, 61 up-regulated twofold and 11 down-regulated twofold proteins were identified. Eight proteins displaying increased expression and one with decreased expression in conditioned media were validated using Western blotting. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR further disclosed induction of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), a T 3 target, in a time-course and dose-dependent manner. Serial deletions of the PAI-1 promoter region and subsequent chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that the thyroid hormone response element on the promoter is localized at positions -327/-312. PAI-1 overexpression enhanced tumor growth and migration in a manner similar to what was seen when T 3 induced PAI-1 expression in J7-TRα1 cells, both in vitro and in vivo. An in vitro neutralizing assay further supported a crucial role of secreted PAI-1 in T 3/TR-regulated cell migration. To our knowledge, these results demonstrate for the first time that proteins involved in the urokinase plasminogen activator system, including PAI-1, uPAR, and BSSP4, are augmented in the extra- and intracellular space of T 3-treated HepG2-TRα1 cells. The T 3-regulated secretome generated in the current study may provide an opportunity to establish the mechanisms underlying T 3-associated tumor progression and prognosis. © 2012 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

Chi H.-C.,Chang Gung University | Chen S.-L.,National Central University | Liao C.-J.,Chang Gung University | Liao C.-H.,Chang Gung University | And 11 more authors.
Cell Death and Differentiation | Year: 2012

Although accumulating evidence has confirmed the important roles of thyroid hormone (T 3) and its receptors (TRs) in tumor progression, the specific functions of TRs in carcinogenesis remain unclear. In the present study, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) was directly upregulated by T 3 in TR-overexpressing hepatoma cell lines. TRAIL is an apoptotic inducer, but it can nonetheless trigger non-apoptotic signals favoring tumorigenesis in apoptosis-resistant cancer cells. We found that TR-overexpressing hepatoma cells treated with T 3 were apoptosis resistant, even when TRAIL was upregulated. This apoptotic resistance may be attributable to simultaneous upregulation of Bcl-xL by T 3, because (1) knockdown of T 3-induced Bcl-xL expression suppressed T 3-mediated protection against apoptosis, and (2) overexpression of Bcl-xL further protected hepatoma cells from TRAIL-induced apoptotic death, consequently leading to TRAIL-promoted metastasis of hepatoma cells. Moreover, T 3-enhanced metastasis in vivo was repressed by the treatment of TRAIL-blocking antibody. Notably, TRAIL was highly expressed in a subset of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients, and this high-level expression was significantly correlated with that of TRs in these HCC tissues. Together, our findings provide evidence for the existence of a novel mechanistic link between increased TR and TRAIL levels in HCC. Thus, TRs induce TRAIL expression, and TRAIL thus synthesized acts in concert with simultaneously synthesized Bcl-xL to promote metastasis, but not apoptosis. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Chen C.-Y.,Chang Gung University | Chung I.-H.,Chang Gung University | Tsai M.-M.,Chang Gung University | Tseng Y.-H.,Chang Gung University | And 9 more authors.
Molecular Cancer | Year: 2014

Background: The thyroid hormone, 3, 3′, 5-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3), has been shown to modulate cellular processes via interactions with thyroid hormone receptors (TRs), but the secretory proteins that are regulated to exert these effects remain to be characterized. Brain-specific serine protease 4 (BSSP4), a member of the human serine protease family, participates in extracellular matrix remodeling. However, the physiological role and underlying mechanism of T3-mediated regulation of BSSP4 in hepatocellular carcinogenesis are yet to be established.Methods: The thyroid hormone response element was identified by reporter and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. The cell motility was analyzed via transwell and SCID mice. The BSSP4 expression in clinical specimens was examined by Western blot and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction.Results: Upregulation of BSSP4 at mRNA and protein levels after T3 stimulation is a time- and dose-dependent manner in hepatoma cell lines. Additionally, the regulatory region of the BSSP4 promoter stimulated by T3 was identified at positions -609/-594. BSSP4 overexpression enhanced tumor cell migration and invasion, both in vitro and in vivo. Subsequently, BSSP4-induced migration occurs through the ERK 1/2-C/EBPβ-VEGF cascade, similar to that observed in HepG2-TRα1 and J7-TRα1 cells. BSSP4 was overexpressed in clinical hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients, compared with normal subjects, and positively associated with TRα1 and VEGF to a significant extent. Importantly, a mild association between BSSP4 expression and distant metastasis was observed.Conclusions: Our findings collectively support a potential role of T3 in cancer cell progression through regulation of the BSSP4 protease via the ERK 1/2-C/EBPβ-VEGF cascade. BSSP4 may thus be effectively utilized as a novel marker and anti-cancer therapeutic target in HCC. © 2014 Chen et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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