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Shetty A.K.,Medical Research and Surgery Services | Shetty A.K.,Duke University
Pharmacology and Therapeutics | Year: 2011

Resveratrol (RESV; 3,5,4′-tri-hydroxy stilbene), a naturally occurring phytoalexin, is found at a high concentration in the skin of red grapes and red wine. RESV mediates a wide-range of biological activities, which comprise an increased life span, anti-ischemic, anti-cancer, antiviral, anti-aging and anti-inflammatory properties. Studies in several animal prototypes of brain injury suggest that RESV is an effective neuroprotective compound. Ability to enter the brain after a peripheral administration and no adverse effects on the brain or body are other features that are appealing for using this compound as a therapy for brain injury or neurodegenerative diseases. The goal of this review is to discuss the promise of RESV for treating acute seizures, preventing the acute seizure or status epilepticus induced development of chronic epilepsy, and easing the chronic epilepsy typified by spontaneous recurrent seizures and cognitive dysfunction. First, the various beneficial effects of RESV on the normal brain are discussed to provide a rationale for considering RESV treatment in the management of acute seizures and epilepsy. Next, the detrimental effects of acute seizures or status epilepticus on the hippocampus and the implications of post-status epilepticus changes in the hippocampus towards the occurrence of chronic epilepsy and cognitive dysfunction are summarized. The final segment evaluates studies that have used RESV as a neuroprotective compound against seizures, and proposes studies that are critically needed prior to the clinical application of RESV as a prophylaxis against the development of chronic epilepsy and cognitive dysfunction after an episode of status epilepticus or head injury. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

Hattiangady B.,Texas A&M University | Hattiangady B.,Duke University | Hattiangady B.,Medical Research and Surgery Services | Shetty A.K.,Texas A&M University | And 3 more authors.
Current Protocols in Stem Cell Biology | Year: 2011

Neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation into the hippocampus could offer an alternative therapy to hippocampal resection in patients with drug-resistant chronic epilepsy, which afflicts ~30% of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) cases. Multipotent, self-renewing NSCs could be expanded from multiple regions of the developing and adult brain, human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). However, to provide a comprehensive methodology involved in testing the efficacy of transplantation of NSCs in a rat model of chronic TLE, NSCs derived from the embryonic medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) are taken as an example in this unit. The topics comprise description of the required materials, reagents and equipment, and protocols for expanding MGE-NSCs in culture, generating chronically epileptic rats, the intrahippocampal grafting, post-grafting evaluation of the effects of NSC grafts on spontaneous recurrent seizures and cognitive impairments, analyses of the yield and the fate of graft-derived cells, and the effects of NSC grafts on the host hippocampus. © 2011 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Hattiangady B.,Medical Research and Surgery Services | Hattiangady B.,Duke University | Kuruba R.,Medical Research and Surgery Services | Kuruba R.,Duke University | And 2 more authors.
Aging and Disease | Year: 2011

The aged population displays an enhanced risk for developing acute seizure (AS) activity. However, it is unclear whether AS activity in old age would result in a greater magnitude of hippocampal neurodegeneration and inflammation, and an increased predilection for developing chronic temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and cognitive dysfunction. Therefore, we addressed these issues in young-adult (5-months old) and aged (22-months old) F344 rats after three-hours of AS activity, induced through graded intraperitoneal injections of kainic acid (KA), and terminated through a diazepam injection. During the three-hours of AS activity, both young adult and aged groups exhibited similar numbers of stage-V motor seizures but the numbers of stage-IV motor seizures were greater in the aged group. In both age groups, three-hour AS activity induced degeneration of 50-55% of neurons in the dentate hilus, 22-32% of neurons in the granule cell layer and 49-52% neurons in the CA3 pyramidal cell layer without showing any interaction between the age and AS activity. However, degeneration of neurons in the CA1 pyramidal cell layer showed a clear interaction between the age and AS activity (12% in the young adult group and 56% in the aged group), suggesting that an advanced age makes the CA1 pyramidal neurons more susceptible to die with AS activity. The extent of inflammation measured through the numbers of activated microglial cells was similar between the two age groups. Interestingly, the predisposition for developing chronic TLE at 2-3 months after AS activity was 60% for young adult rats but 100% for aged rats. Moreover, both frequency & intensity of spontaneous recurrent seizures in the chronic phase after AS activity were 6-12 folds greater in aged rats than in young adult rats. Furthermore, aged rats lost their ability for spatial learning even in a scrupulous eleven-session water maze learning paradigm after AS activity, in divergence from young adult rats which retained the ability for spatial learning but had memory retrieval dysfunction after AS activity. Thus, AS activity in old age results in a greater loss of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons, an increased propensity for developing robust chronic TLE, and a severe cognitive dysfunction.

Kuruba R.,Medical Research and Surgery Services | Kuruba R.,Duke University | Hattiangady B.,Medical Research and Surgery Services | Hattiangady B.,Texas A&M University | And 10 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Acute seizure (AS) activity in old age has an increased predisposition for evolving into temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Furthermore, spontaneous seizures and cognitive dysfunction after AS activity are often intense in the aged population than in young adults. This could be due to an increased vulnerability of inhibitory interneurons in the aged hippocampus to AS activity. We investigated this issue by comparing the survival of hippocampal GABA-ergic interneurons that contain the neuropeptide Y (NPY) or the calcium binding protein parvalbumin (PV) between young adult (5-months old) and aged (22-months old) F344 rats at 12 days after three-hours of AS activity. Graded intraperitoneal injections of the kainic acid (KA) induced AS activity and a diazepam injection at 3 hours after the onset terminated AS-activity. Measurement of interneuron numbers in different hippocampal subfields revealed that NPY+ interneurons were relatively resistant to AS activity in the aged hippocampus in comparison to the young adult hippocampus. Whereas, PV+ interneurons were highly susceptible to AS activity in both age groups. However, as aging alone substantially depleted these populations, the aged hippocampus after three-hours of AS activity exhibited 48% reductions in NPY+ interneurons and 70% reductions in PV+ interneurons, in comparison to the young hippocampus after similar AS activity. Thus, AS activity-induced TLE in old age is associated with far fewer hippocampal NPY+ and PV+ interneuron numbers than AS-induced TLE in the young adult age. This discrepancy likely underlies the severe spontaneous seizures and cognitive dysfunction observed in the aged people after AS activity.

Waldau B.,Duke University | Waldau B.,Medical Research and Surgery Services | Hattiangady B.,Duke University | Hattiangady B.,Medical Research and Surgery Services | And 4 more authors.
Stem Cells | Year: 2010

Nearly 30% of patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) are resistant to treatment with antiepileptic drugs. Neural stem cell (NSC) grafting into the hippocampus could offer an alternative therapy to hippocampal resection in these patients. As TLE is associated with reduced numbers of inhibitory gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA)-ergic interneurons and astrocytes expressing the anticonvulsant glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) in the hippocampus, we tested the hypothesis that grafting of NSCs that are capable of adding new GABA-ergic interneurons and GDNF-expressing astrocytes into the epileptic hippocampus restrains spontaneous recurrent motor seizures (SRMS) in chronic TLE. We grafted NSCs expanded in vitro from embryonic medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) into hippocampi of adult rats exhibiting chronic TLE with cognitive impairments. NSC grafting reduced frequencies of SRMS by 43% and stage V seizures by 90%. The duration of individual SRMS and the total time spent in seizures were reduced by 51 and 74%, respectively. Grafting did not improve the cognitive function however. Graft-derived cells (equivalent to ∼28% of injected cells) were observed in various layers of the epileptic hippocampus where they differentiated into NeuN+ neurons (13%), S-100β+ astrocytes (57%), and NG2+ oligodendrocyte-progenitors (3%). Furthermore, among graft-derived cells, 10% expressed GABA and 50% expressed GDNF. Additionally, NSC grafting restored GDNF in a vast majority of the hippocampal astrocytes but had no effect on neurogenesis. Thus, MGE-NSC therapy is efficacious for diminishing SRMS in chronic TLE. Addition of new GABA-ergic neurons and GDNF+ cells, and restoration of GDNF in the hippocampal astrocytes may underlie the therapeutic effect of MGE-NSC grafts. © AlphaMed Press.

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