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To clarify age-related histological and zinc content changes in paediatric and nonhyperplastic young adult prostate glands, a quantitative morphometric and energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis (EDXRF) was performed. The prostates were obtained at autopsy from 50 subjects (European-Caucasian aged 0-30 years) who died from sudden infant death syndrome, acute pulmonary aetiologies and trauma. None of the subjects had any symptoms of prostatic disease and all prostates were classified as histologically normal. Each prostate was divided into two portions. One tissue portion was reviewed by an anatomical pathologist whereas another was intended for a Zn mass fraction measurement using EDXRF. The mean per cent volume of the stroma (S), glandular epithelium (E), glandular lumen (L) and glandular component (GC = E + L) were determined and the mean ratios of per cent volumes (S/E, S/GC and E/L) were calculated for each prostate specimen. It was found that normal prostate tissue undergoes substantial changes from birth through early adulthood. These changes are reflected in an increment of the per cent volume of the glandular epithelium and lumen and in a diminution of the per cent volume of the stroma. The S/E ratio of the prostate falls by a factor of almost 4, between ages <1 and 30 years from 5 : 1 to 1.3 : 1. The Zn mass fraction is nearly 30-35 mg/kg (wet weight basis) and remains steady for first decade of life. Then it begins to increase rapidly during and after puberty. The level of the Zn content in prostate tissue is most closely associated with the volume of the glandular lumen, which reflects the volume of prostatic fluid. © 2012 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.


Zaichick S.,Northwestern University | Zaichick V.,Medical Radiological Research Center
X-Ray Spectrometry | Year: 2011

A method for radionuclide-induced (109Cd) energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescent (EDXRF) was used to determine Br, Fe, Rb, Sr, and Zn contents in intact and morphologic normal prostate tissues. Prostates were removed at necropsy from 64 men (mean age 36.5years, range 13-60) who had died suddenly. All materials were divided into two parts. One part was morphologically examined, whereas chemical element contents of the other were estimated. Mean values (M±SΕΜ) for mass fraction of Br, Fe, Rb, Sr, and Zn (mgkg-1 on dry-weight basis) in the intact and morphologic normal prostate tissue were 35.5±4.0, 107±5.4, 17.1±0.8, 1.9±0.3, and 850±79, respectively. Mean values (M±SΕΜ) for Zn/Fe, Zn/Rb, and Zn/Sr ratios of mass fraction were 8.72±0.80, 57.4±7.2, and 567±82, respectively. A strongly pronounced tendency of age-related exponential increase in Zn mass fraction as well an increase in Zn/Fe, Zn/Rb, and Zn/Sr ratios in prostate was observed. A significant positive correlation was seen between the prostatic zinc and iron contents (p≤0.05, r=0.22) and between the prostatic zinc and bromine contents (p≤0.01, r=0.43). © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Zaichick V.,Medical Radiological Research Center | Zaichick S.,Northwestern University
Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry | Year: 2013

The effect of age on trace element contents in intact prostate of 50 apparently healthy 0-30 year old males was investigated by neutron activation analysis with high resolution spectrometry of long-lived radionuclides. Mean values (M ± SΕΜ) for mass fraction (milligram per kilogram, on dry-weight basis) of trace elements were: Ag 0.0708 ± 0.0096, Co 0.0348 ± 0.0040, Cr 0.466 ± 0.069, Fe 100 ± 10, Hg 0.0258 ± 0.0025, Rb 12.6 ± 0.8, Sb 0.0576 ± 0.0066, Sc 0.0125 ± 0.0016, Se 0.478 ± 0.031, and Zn 273 ± 31, respectively. A strongly pronounced tendency of age-related increase in Se and Zn mass fraction and of age-related decrease in Co, Cr, Fe, and Sc mass fraction was observed in period of life from 0 to 30 years. © 2013 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary.


Zaichick V.,Medical Radiological Research Center | Zaichick S.,Northwestern University
Applied Radiation and Isotopes | Year: 2013

The effect of age on chemical element mass fractions in intact prostate of 50 apparently healthy 0-30 year old males was investigated by neutron activation analysis with high resolution spectrometry of short-lived radionuclides. Mean values (M±SΕΜ) for mass fraction (mgkg-1, dry mass basis) of chemical elements before the time of puberty and in the period of puberty and post-puberty were: Br 46.0±6.7, Ca 1151±140, Cl 14572±700, K 10147±700, Mg 771±131, Mn 2.13±0.25, Na 9880±659 and Br 29.0±4.6, Ca 2049±364, Cl 11518±1121, K 13029±542, Mg 1186±134, Mn 1.74±0.16, Na 9887±716, respectively. A tendency of age-related increase in Ca, K, and Mg mass fraction and of age-related decrease in Br mass fraction was observed in period of life from 0 to 30 years. This new data indicates that of the elements studied, only the Ca, K, and Mg mass fraction in prostate tissue is an androgen-dependent parameter. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Zaichick V.,Medical Radiological Research Center
Medical Hypotheses | Year: 2014

Several experiments show that prostatic fluid is continuously produced and it is drained from the prostate during urination and ejaculation. The mechanism which causes prostatic fluid to drain from the prostatic acini during urination is currently unclear. Also in current opinion such structures of the prostatic urethra as the urethral crest and the colliculus seminalis have no apparent functional significance. This article describes a mechanism for the draining of the prostatic acini that involves these prostatic urethral structures. It is hypothesized that the prostatic urethra works as a pump using the Venturi effect, in which urine is the carrying or motive liquid during voiding, in order to drain prostatic fluid (the carried liquid) from the acini. The urethral crest and the colliculus seminalis take part in controlling flow rates and liquid pressures for this pump to be effective. The calculated estimation of a pressure drop in the region of the colliculus seminalis during micturition was obtained using morphometric and uroflowmetric data and was used to confirm this hypothesis of prostatic acini drainage. As a consequence of this, a previously unknown function for these intra-prostatic urethral structures is described. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


To clarify age-related changes of 67 macro- and microelement contents in prostate gland of adult and geriatric males, a quantitative measurement by five analytical methods was performed. The nonhyperplastic prostate glands of 65 subjects (European-Caucasian aged 21–87 years) were investigated by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF), instrumental neutron activation analysis with high resolution spectrometry of short-lived radionuclides (INAA-SLR), instrumental neutron activation analysis with high resolution spectrometry of long-lived radionuclides (INAA-LLR), inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The prostates were obtained at autopsy from subjects who died from acute illness (cardiac insufficiency, stroke, embolism of pulmonary artery, alcohol poisoning) and trauma. None of the subjects had any symptoms of prostatic disease, and all prostates were classified as histologically normal. The combination of nuclear (EDXRF, INAA-SLR, and INAA-LLR) and inductively coupled plasma (ICP-AES and ICP-MS) analytical methods allowed estimation of the contents of 67 chemical elements and precisely determined the mass fraction of 54 elements in the tissue samples of nonhyperplastic adult and geriatric prostate glands. This work’s results reveal that there is a significant increase with age of Bi, Cd, Co, Fe, Hg, Pb, Sc, Sn, Th, U, and Zn mass fractions in the prostate tissue of healthy individuals of ages from 21 to 60 years, as well as an increase in Ba from age 61 up to 87 years. It implies that an age-related increase and excess in Ba, Bi, Cd, Co, Fe, Hg, Pb, Sc, Sn, Th, U, and Zn mass fraction in prostatic tissue may be one of the main factors in the etiology of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate carcinoma (PCa). © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Zaichick V.,Medical Radiological Research Center
Radiation and Environmental Biophysics | Year: 2013

This study was undertaken to provide reference values of chemical element mass fractions in intact bone of Reference (European Caucasian) Man/Woman. The rib bone samples investigated were obtained from autopsies of 84 apparently healthy 15-58-year-old citizens (38 females and 46 males) of a non-industrial region in the Central European part of Russia who had suffered sudden death. The mass fractions (mg/kg given on a wet mass basis) of 69 elements in these bone samples were measured by using neutron activation analysis with high-resolution spectrometry of short-lived and long-lived radionuclides, particle-induced gamma-ray emission, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry including necessary quality control measures. Using published and measured data, mass fraction values of the 79 elements for the rib bone have been derived. Based on accepted rib to skeleton mass fractions and reference values of skeleton mass for Reference Man, the elemental burdens in the skeleton were estimated. These results may provide a representative bases for establishing related reference values for the Russian Reference Man/Woman and for revising and adding current reference values for the International Commission on Radiological Protection. The data presented will also be very valuable for many other applications in radiation protection, radiotherapy radiation dosimetry, and other scientific fields. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Zaichick V.,Medical Radiological Research Center | Zaichick S.,Northwestern University
Age | Year: 2014

To clarify age-related histological and Zn content changes in nonhyperplastic adult prostate glands, a quantitative morphometric and energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence analyses were performed. The prostates were obtained from autopsies of 63 subjects aged 21-70 years who died mainly from trauma. It was found that histologically normal prostate tissue undergoes substantial changes throughout aging. These changes are reflected in an increase of the percent volume of the glandular lumen for the third to fifth decades, reaching a maximum for the decade 41-50 years. Over the same period, the percent volume of the stroma remains steady, but the percent volume of epithelium decreases, approximately, linearly with age. The percent volume of glandular lumen (reflects the volume of prostatic fluid) in the prostate gland of men aged 41 to 50 years is 1.5-fold higher than that in men aged 21 to 30 years, but the epithelium/lumen (prostatic fluid) ratio is approximately twofold lower. This suggests that accumulation of the prostatic fluid develops from 30 to 50 years of age. This accumulation of the prostatic fluid results in an increase of the Zn mass fraction in the prostate. In turn, when the intraprostatic Zn level exceeds a certain level by the end of the fifth decade, it begins to work as a trigger for different factors, all of which increase the proliferation of stromal cells. Deductions from these results allow possible partial explanations of both relevant prostatic aging mechanisms and the effects of dietary interventions using supplementary Zn. © American Aging Association 2013.


Zaichick V.,Medical Radiological Research Center
Biological Trace Element Research | Year: 2013

The mass fractions (in milligrams per kilogram given on a dry mass basis) of 69 chemical elements in the intact rib bone of 84 apparently healthy 15- to 58-year-old citizens (38 females and 46 males) of a nonindustrial region were investigated using five instrumental analytical methods: neutron activation analysis with high-resolution spectrometry of short- and of long-lived radionuclides, particle-induced gamma-ray emission spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission, and mass spectrometry. The mass fractions of chemical elements were measured for rib bone of both males and females, taken separately and together. The present results indicate that rib bone can be used as exposure monitors in occupational medicine and environmental health studies to assess, or indicate, the body burden of Al, B, Ba, Be, Ca, Cr, F, Li, Mg, Na, Ni, P, Pb, rare-earth elements (REEs), Sr, and Zn. Our data show an exponential increase with the age of the content of REEs in the rib of people living in an ecologically safe region. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Zaichick V.,Medical Radiological Research Center | Zaichick S.,Northwestern University
Biological Trace Element Research | Year: 2013

The effect of age on the mass fraction of 19 chemical elements in the intact prostate of 50 apparently healthy 0-30-year-old males was investigated by neutron activation analysis with high-resolution spectrometry of short-lived radionuclides and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. Mean values (M ± standard error of the mean) for mass fraction (in milligrams per kilogram, on dry weight basis) of chemical elements were as follows: Al, 77 ± 17; B, 1.31 ± 0.29; Ba, 4.0 ± 1.2; Br, 37.7 ± 4.3; Ca, 1,536 ± 189; Cl, 13,414 ± 949; Cu, 12.3 ± 2.1; Fe, 132 ± 11; K, 11,547 ± 468; Li, 0.064 ± 0.009; Mg, 922 ± 89; Mn, 1.88 ± 0.16; Na, 9,834 ± 411; P, 6,741 ± 335; S, 8,034 ± 251; Si, 199 ± 34; Sr, 1.40 ± 0.19; and Zn, 277 ± 33. The upper limit of mean mass fraction of V was ≤0.24. This work revealed that there is significant tendency for the mass fractions of Ca, K, Mg, and Zn in the prostate tissue of healthy individuals to increase with age from the time of birth up to 30 years. It means that Ca, K, Mg, and Zn mass fractions in prostate tissue are the androgen-dependent parameters. Our finding of a positive correlation between the prostatic Zn and Ca, K, Mg, P, and S mass fractions indicates that there is a special relationship of Zn with some main electrolytes (Ca, K, and Mg) and with P- and S-containing compounds in the prostate. It was shown also that high levels of Al, B, Ba, Br, Cl, Li, Na, and Sr mass fraction in prostate tissue do not indicate a direct involvement of these elements in the reproductive function of the prostate. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

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