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Bad Honnef, Germany

Bruske I.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research | Standl M.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research | Weidinger S.,University of Kiel | Klumper C.,IUF Leibniz Research Institute for Environmental Medicine | And 7 more authors.
Pediatric Allergy and Immunology | Year: 2014

Background: Although urticaria is considered one of the most frequent skin diseases, reliable epidemiologic data are scarce. Objective: To evaluate the incidence and cumulative prevalence of urticaria in infants and children up to age of 10, to characterize the relationship of specific IgE levels (food and inhalative allergens) with urticaria, and to monitor the joint occurrence of urticaria with other diseases, such as eczema, asthma, and hay fever. Methods: The study population consisted of two prospective birth cohort studies: the LISAplus and GINIplus studies. Information on physician-diagnosed urticaria, asthma, eczema, or hay fever was collected using self-administered questionnaires completed by the parents. Blood samples were drawn, and specific immunoglobulin E measured at 2 (only LISAplus), 6 and 10 yr of age. Results: The incidence of urticaria was approximately 1% per year of age. The cumulative prevalence of urticaria in children up to the age of 10 yr was 14.5% for boys and 16.2% for girls. Cumulative prevalence of urticaria at the age of ten was significantly (p < 0.05) associated with allergic sensitization to peanut, soy, and wheat flour, but not with inhalant allergens. Both a parental history of atopy/urticaria and the children's diagnosis of asthma, eczema, and hay fever were strongly related (p < 0.0001) to the occurrence of urticaria. Conclusions: Urticaria is a frequent event during childhood, with highest incidence in infants and preschool children. Comorbidity with atopic disease is high. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

Pei Z.,Institute of Epidemiology I | Pei Z.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Heinrich J.,Institute of Epidemiology I | Fuertes E.,Institute of Epidemiology I | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Pediatrics | Year: 2014

Objective To investigate whether birth by cesarean delivery rather than vaginal delivery is a risk factor for later childhood obesity. Study design Healthy, full-term infants were recruited. Overweight and obesity were defined using measured weight and height according to World Health Organization reference data. Associations between cesarean delivery and being overweight or obese were investigated at age 2, 6, and 10 years (n = 1734, 1244, and 1170, respectively) by multivariate logistic regression models adjusted for socioeconomic status, child characteristics, and maternal prepregnancy characteristics. Results Mothers who gave birth by cesarean delivery (∼17%) had a higher mean prepregnancy body mass index (23.7 kg/m2 vs 22.5 kg/m2), greater mean gestational weight gain (15.3 kg vs 14.5 kg), and shorter mean duration of exclusive breastfeeding (3.4 months vs 3.8 months) compared with those who delivered vaginally. The proportion of obese children was greater in the cesarean delivery group compared with the vaginal delivery group at age 2 years (13.6% vs 8.3%), but not at older ages. Regression analyses revealed a greater likelihood of obesity at age 2 years in the cesarean delivery group compared with the vaginal delivery group at age 2 years (aOR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.10-2.58), but not at age 6 years (aOR, 1.49; 95% CI, 0.55-4.05) or age 10 years (aOR, 1.16; 95% CI, 0.59-2.29). Conclusion Cesarean delivery may increase the risk of obesity in early childhood. Our results do not support the hypothesis that an increasing rate of cesarean delivery contributes to obesity in childhood. © 2014 The Authors. Source

Schnabel E.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research | Sausenthaler S.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research | Schaaf B.,Medical Practice for Pediatrics | Schafer T.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research | And 10 more authors.
Clinical and Experimental Allergy | Year: 2010

Background Food allergy is common, especially in childhood, where 6-8% of children are affected. Identification of early and efficient markers for later development of food allergy is very important. Objective We examined the ability of repeated measurements of food sensitization in early childhood to predict doctor-diagnosed food allergy (DDFA) at the age of 6 years. Methods The analysis was based on data from a prospective birth cohort study. Information was collected by parental questionnaires, and blood samples were obtained at 2 and 6 years of age. Children with repeated determination of sensitization to food allergens at 2 and 6 years of age were categorized into the sensitization phenotypes: no, early onset, late onset and persistent sensitization. The association between sensitization phenotypes and DDFA was prospectively investigated using multiple logistic regression analyses. Results Of 3097 children recruited at birth, a complete follow-up of IgE measurements and questionnaires at 1.5, 2 and 6 years were available for 1082 children. Early food allergen sensitization (fx5) was a strong risk for DDFA at 6 years [odds ratio (OR)=4.7; 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) 2.0-11.2] and for a new onset of DDFA at 6 years (OR=4.1; 95% CI 1.5-11.3). Additionally, persistent food allergen sensitization increased the risk of DDFA at 6 years (OR=6.1; 95% CI 2.7-13.7). Early sensitized children with a history of parental atopy showed the highest risk for DDFA at 6 years. Conclusion Food-sensitized children during the first 2 years of life, especially with a family history of atopy, might be considered as a susceptible subgroup that requires specific attention concerning the development of food allergy-related symptoms. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source

Czamara D.,Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry | Czamara D.,Synergy Systems | Tiesler C.M.T.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research | Tiesler C.M.T.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | And 13 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and dyslexia belong to the most common neuro-behavioral childhood disorders with prevalences of around 5% in school-aged children. It is estimated that 20-60% of individuals affected with ADHD also present with learning disorders. We investigated the comorbidity between ADHD symptoms and reading/spelling and math difficulties in two on-going population-based birth cohort studies. Children with ADHD symptoms were at significantly higher risk of also showing reading/spelling difficulties or disorder (Odds Ratio (OR) = 2.80, p = 6.59×10-13) as compared to children without ADHD symptoms. For math difficulties the association was similar (OR = 2.55, p = 3.63×10-04). Our results strengthen the hypothesis that ADHD and learning disorders are comorbid and share, at least partially, the same underlying process. Up to date, it is not clear, on which exact functional processes this comorbidity is based. © 2013 Czamara et al. Source

Standl M.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research | Lattka E.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research | Stach B.,University of Leipzig | Koletzko S.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | And 12 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Background: Elevated cholesterol levels in children can be a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases in later life. In adults, it has been shown that blood lipid levels are strongly influenced by polymorphisms in the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) gene cluster in addition to nutritional and other exogenous and endogenous determinants. Our aim was to investigate whether lipid levels are determined by the FADS genotype already in children and whether this association interacts with dietary intake of n-3 fatty acids. Methods: The analysis was based on data of 2006 children from two German prospective birth cohort studies. Total cholesterol, HDL, LDL and triglycerides were measured at 10 years of age. Six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the FADS gene cluster were genotyped. Dietary n-3 fatty acid intake was assessed by food frequency questionnaire. Linear regression modeling was used to assess the association between lipid levels, n-3 fatty acid intake and FADS genotype. Results: Individuals carrying the homozygous minor allele had lower levels of total cholesterol [means ratio (MR) ranging from 0.96 (p = 0.0093) to 0.98 (p = 0.2949), depending on SNPs] and LDL [MR between 0.94 (p = 0.0179) and 0.97 (p = 0.2963)] compared to homozygous major allele carriers. Carriers of the heterozygous allele showed lower HDL levels [β between -0.04 (p = 0.0074) to -0.01 (p = 0.3318)] and higher triglyceride levels [MR ranging from 1.06 (p = 0.0065) to 1.07 (p = 0.0028)] compared to homozygous major allele carriers. A higher n-3 PUFA intake was associated with higher concentrations of total cholesterol, LDL, HDL and lower triglyceride levels, but these associations did not interact with the FADS1 FADS2 genotype. Conclusion: Total cholesterol, HDL, LDL and triglyceride concentrations may be influenced by the FADS1 FADS2 genotype already in 10 year old children. Genetically determined blood lipid levels during childhood might differentially predispose individuals to the development of cardiovascular diseases later in life. © 2012 Standl et al. Source

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