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Liverpool, United Kingdom

Marzo A.,University of Sheffield | Singh P.,Royal Hallamshire Hospital | Larrabide I.,University Pompeu Fabra | Larrabide I.,CIBER ISCIII | And 12 more authors.
Annals of Biomedical Engineering | Year: 2011

Modeling of flow in intracranial aneurysms (IAs) requires flow information at the model boundaries. In absence of patient-specific measurements, typical or modeled boundary conditions (BCs) are often used. This study investigates the effects of modeled versus patient-specific BCs on modeled hemodynamics within IAs. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models of five IAs were reconstructed from three-dimensional rotational angiography (3DRA). BCs were applied using in turn patient-specific phase-contrast-MR (pc-MR) measurements, a 1D-circulation model, and a physiologically coherent method based on local WSS at inlets. The Navier-Stokes equations were solved using the Ansys®-CFX™ software. Wall shear stress (WSS), oscillatory shear index (OSI), and other hemodynamic indices were computed. Differences in the values obtained with the three methods were analyzed using boxplot diagrams. Qualitative similarities were observed in the flow fields obtained with the three approaches. The quantitative comparison showed smaller discrepancies between pc-MR and 1D-model data, than those observed between pc-MR and WSS-scaled data. Discrepancies were reduced when indices were normalized to mean hemodynamic aneurysmal data. The strong similarities observed for the three BCs models suggest that vessel and aneurysm geometry have the strongest influence on aneurysmal hemodynamics. In absence of patient-specific BCs, a distributed circulation model may represent the best option when CFD is used for large cohort studies. © 2010 Biomedical Engineering Society.

Kunwald P.,Aarhus University Hospital | Kunwald P.,University of Aalborg | Drewes A.M.,Aarhus University Hospital | Kjaer D.,Aarhus University Hospital | And 7 more authors.
Neurogastroenterology and Motility | Year: 2010

Background Evaluation of the biliary tract is important in physiological, pathophysiological, and clinical studies. Although the sphincter of Oddi (SO) can be evaluated with manometry, this technique has several limitations. This may explain the difficulties in identifying pathophysiological mechanisms for dysfunction of the SO and in identifying patients who may benefit from certain therapies. To encompass problems with manometry, methods such as the functional lumen imaging probe (FLIP) technique have been developed to study GI sphincters. This study set about miniaturising the FLIP probe and validating it for measurements in the SO. In order to get a better physiological understanding of the SO the aims were to show the sphincter profile in vivo and motility patterns of SO in pilot studies using volunteers that were experiencing biliary type pain but had normal SO manometry. Methods The SO probe was constructed to measure eight cross-sectional areas (CSA) along a length of 25 mm inside a saline-filled bag. To validate the technique for profiling the SO, six perspex cylinders with different CSAs were measured nine times to assess reproducibility and accuracy. Key Results Reproducibility and accuracy for these measurements were good. The probe performed well in bench tests and was therefore tested in four humans. The data indicated that it was possible to make distensions in the human SO and that a geometric sphincter profile could be obtained. Conclusions & Inferences The probe will in future studies be tested for diagnostic purposes related to sphincter of Oddi diseases. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Simmons S.,University of Reading | McCrindle R.,University of Reading | Sperrin M.,Medical Physics and Clinical Engineering | Smith A.,Medical Physics and Clinical Engineering
Proceedings of the 2013 7th International Conference on Pervasive Computing Technologies for Healthcare and Workshops, PervasiveHealth 2013 | Year: 2013

Brain injuries, including stroke, can be debilitating incidents with potential for severe long term effects; many people stop making significant progress once leaving in-patient medical care and are unable to fully restore their quality of life when returning home. The aim of this collaborative project, between the Royal Berkshire NHS Foundation Trust and the University of Reading, is to provide a low cost portable system that supports a patient's condition and their recovery in hospital or at home. This is done by providing engaging applications with targeted gameplay that is individually tailored to the rehabilitation of the patient's symptoms. The applications are capable of real-time data capture and analysis in order to provide information to therapists on patient progress and to further improve the personalized care that an individual can receive. © 2013 ICST.

Fisher A.C.,Medical Physics and Clinical Engineering | Fisher A.C.,University of Liverpool | Groves D.,Medical Physics and Clinical Engineering | Eleuteri A.,Medical Physics and Clinical Engineering | And 3 more authors.
Physiological Measurement | Year: 2014

This study considers the linkage of exogenously stimulated emotional stress with the neurogenic regulation of heart rate operating at very low frequencies. The objectives were three-fold: to consider the present evidence that such a linkage exists as a primary phenomenon; to compare the potential of a frequency-domain method and a time-domain method in revealing this phenomenon by characterizing heart rate variability (HRV) at frequencies of [0.0005...0.4] Hz and to design, implement and report a physiological experiment in which alternating periods of exposure to bland and high valence visual stimuli might reveal this phenomenon. A methodical challenge was to optimize the length of exposure to the stimulus such that subjects did not have time to habituate to stimuli, whilst acquiring sufficient data (heart beats) such that the ultra-low frequency (ULF) components of HRV could be described. With exposure times set to approximately 5 min, during which time the strength of the stimulus and the corresponding evoked response were considered stationary, the lowest HRV frequency component that could be characterized was 0.003 Hz. In trials with parametrically defined test data, the time-domain method based on the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck Gaussian process (OU-GP) was shown to be better than the frequency-domain method in describing the ULF components of the HRV. In an experimental cohort of 16 subjects, analysis using the OU-GP revealed evidence of cardiac regulatory mechanisms influenced by emotional valence operating in the bandwidth (ULF*) [0.002...0.01] Hz. © 2014 Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine.

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