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Azad N.,Medical Oncology Branch | Azad N.,Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins | Yu M.,Medical Oncology Branch | Davidson B.,University of Oslo | And 12 more authors.
Molecular and Cellular Proteomics | Year: 2013

Predictive biomarkers are needed to triage patients to the best therapy. We prospectively planned examination of sequential blood, biopsy, and functional imaging with which to confirm the mechanism and to identify potential predictive biomarkers in a phase Ib clinical trial expansion of patients with solid tumors receiving sorafenib/bevacizumab. The maximally tolerated doses of sorafenib at 200 mg twice daily with bevacizumab at 5 mg/kg every other week were given to biopsiable patients. Patients were randomized to receive either sorafenib or bevacizumab monotherapy for the first 28-day cycle with the second drug added with cycle 2. Biopsies, dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, and fluorodeoxyglucose- proton emission tomography were done pre-therapy and at 2 and 6 weeks (2 weeks into combination therapy). Tumor and serum proteomics, Ras/Raf mutational analysis, and functional imaging results were examined individually and across the dataset to identify potential changes predictive of response to therapy and those that confirm the biochemical drug mechanism(s). Therapy with sorafenib/bevacizumab resulted in clinical benefit in 45% of this mixed solid tumor group. ERK activation and microvessel density were decreased with monotherapy treatment with sorafenib or bevacizumab, respectively; whereas a decreased signal over the group of total AKT, phospho(p)-VEGF receptor2, p-endothelial nitric-oxide synthase, b-RAF, and cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase was associated with earlier progression of disease. Tumor metabolic activity decreased in those patients with clinical benefits lasting longer than 4 months, and activity increased with progression of disease. Cleavage of caspase 3 and poly(ADPribose) polymerase was increased, and Ki67 expression decreased in patients with prolonged clinical benefits, consistent with decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis. The conglomerate analysis, incorporating pharmacodynamic and tumor biochemistry, demonstrated sorafenib/bevacizumab-targeted vascular activity in the tumor. Results suggest potential biomarkers for which changes, as a group, during early therapeutic exposure may predict clinical benefit. © 2013 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.


Chen J.-Q.,Laboratory of Cell Biology | Lee J.-H.,Medical Oncology Branch | Herrmann M.A.,Laboratory of Cell Biology | Park K.-S.,Medical Oncology Branch | And 5 more authors.
Molecular Cancer Therapeutics | Year: 2013

Developing proteomic biomarkers is valuable for evaluating therapeutic effects of drugs and generating better treatment strategies. However, conventional protein analysis is often challenging due to inadequate sample size of clinical specimens, lack of assay reproducibility, accuracy, and sensitivity. A novel capillary isoelectricfocusing (IEF) immunoassay system (NanoPro) was used to study the dynamic phosphorylation status of signaling molecules in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells treated with EGFR tyrosine kinase and MEKinhibitors. NanoPro showed the same dynamic ERK phosphorylation as Western blotting with good assay reproducibility using 1,000 times less protein. The IEF separation in NanoPro system enables multiple protein phosphorylation isoforms to be resolved and detected simultaneously. With NanoPro, we identified a specific on-target mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK) response pattern to MEK inhibitor PD325901, which was not detectable by Western blot analysis. We also revealed a MEK2 signal that may be associated with NSCLC cell sensitivity to the EGF receptor inhibitor erlotinib, and distinguished erlotinib-sensitive cells from intrinsic as well as acquired resistant cells to erlotinib. Moreover, NanoPro could differentiate human ERK1 isoforms from the mouse isoforms based on their isoelectric point differences and showed that erlotinib effectively inhibited ERK phosphorylation in targeted human xenograft cancer cells but not in surrounding mouse stromal cells. With 8 mg of tumor aspirates, we precisely quantified the response of 18 signaling molecules to erlotinib andMEK1inhibitor treatments in anNSCLC patient. NanoPro's higher sensitivity, better resolution of protein phosphorylation status, and reduced tissue requirement warrant NanoPro's investigation for future drug development and evaluation of drug effects of targeted therapies. Mol Cancer Ther; 12(11); 2601-13. © 2013 AACR.


PubMed | Medical Oncology Branch
Type: Clinical Trial, Phase I | Journal: Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP | Year: 2013

Predictive biomarkers are needed to triage patients to the best therapy. We prospectively planned examination of sequential blood, biopsy, and functional imaging with which to confirm the mechanism and to identify potential predictive biomarkers in a phase Ib clinical trial expansion of patients with solid tumors receiving sorafenib/bevacizumab. The maximally tolerated doses of sorafenib at 200 mg twice daily with bevacizumab at 5 mg/kg every other week were given to biopsiable patients. Patients were randomized to receive either sorafenib or bevacizumab monotherapy for the first 28-day cycle with the second drug added with cycle 2. Biopsies, dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, and fluorodeoxyglucose-proton emission tomography were done pre-therapy and at 2 and 6 weeks (2 weeks into combination therapy). Tumor and serum proteomics, Ras/Raf mutational analysis, and functional imaging results were examined individually and across the dataset to identify potential changes predictive of response to therapy and those that confirm the biochemical drug mechanism(s). Therapy with sorafenib/bevacizumab resulted in clinical benefit in 45% of this mixed solid tumor group. ERK activation and microvessel density were decreased with monotherapy treatment with sorafenib or bevacizumab, respectively; whereas a decreased signal over the group of total AKT, phospho(p)-VEGF receptor2, p-endothelial nitric-oxide synthase, b-RAF, and cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase was associated with earlier progression of disease. Tumor metabolic activity decreased in those patients with clinical benefits lasting longer than 4 months, and activity increased with progression of disease. Cleavage of caspase 3 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase was increased, and Ki67 expression decreased in patients with prolonged clinical benefits, consistent with decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis. The conglomerate analysis, incorporating pharmacodynamic and tumor biochemistry, demonstrated sorafenib/bevacizumab-targeted vascular activity in the tumor. Results suggest potential biomarkers for which changes, as a group, during early therapeutic exposure may predict clinical benefit.

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