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Avan A.,VU University Amsterdam | Pacetti P.,Carrara Civic Hospital | Reni M.,San Raffaele Scientific Institute | Milella M.,Regina Elena Cancer Institute | And 8 more authors.
International Journal of Cancer | Year: 2013

The use of platinated agents in combination chemotherapy regimens for advanced pancreatic cancer is controversial owing to the lack of an outstanding impact on the outcome and a substantial increase in hematologic and extra-hematologic toxicities. Pharmacogenetic studies to identify patients who could benefit most from such therapies are urgently needed. The Xeroderma-Pigmentosum group-D polymorphism at codon-751 (XPD-Lys751Gln) emerged as the most significant independent predictor for death- and progression-risk in our previous study on functional polymorphisms in 122 advanced pancreatic cancer patients treated with cisplatin-docetaxel-capecitabine-gemcitabine and cisplatin-epirubicin-capecitabine-gemcitabine (or EC-GemCap). To confirm the prognostic role of this variable, we further evaluated the correlation of XPD-Lys751Gln with outcome in another 125 patients treated with the same regimens, and 90 treated with gemcitabine monotherapy. Genotyping was successfully carried out in the vast majority of DNA samples. Genotype frequencies followed Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, and XPD-Lys751Gln was associated with differential progression-free and overall-survival. Multivariate analysis confirmed its prognostic significance in platinum-based regimens. In particular, XPD-Gln751Gln was significantly associated with risk of death (hazard ratio, HR = 1.7, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-2.6, p = 0.011) and risk of progression (HR = 1.7, 95% CI, 1.1-2.5, p = 0.013). No correlation was observed in gemcitabine monotherapy-treated patients. The analysis of DNA damage using extra-long-PCR in lymphocytes supported the association of XPD-Gln751Gln with greater resistance to cisplatin-induced damage. The increasing evidence of XPD-Lys751Gln impact on the outcome of gemcitabine-cisplatin-based polychemotherapy leads to plan prospective studies to validate the role of this polymorphism as a new tool for optimization of the currently available treatments in pancreatic cancer. What's new? Recent advances in treatments of pancreatic cancer include a novel combination therapy of cisplatin-gemcitabine- based polychemotherapeutic regimens. However, this treatment shows increased hematologic or extra-hematologic side effects calling for the identification of biomarkers that predict treatment outcome. In this study, the XPD-Lys751Gln gene polymorphism was identified as the most significant independent predictor for death and progression-risk in pancreatic cancer patients who underwent such treatment. Determined by a simple blood test, the polymorphism offers an innovative tool for optimizing palliative chemotherapy in advanced pancreatic cancers. The authors call for prospective trials to validate their findings, which may ultimately lead to a more individualized treatment in selected pancreatic cancer patients. Copyright © 2013 UICC.


Giovannetti E.,VU University Amsterdam | Giovannetti E.,University of Pisa | Funel N.,Pisa Hospital | Peters G.J.,VU University Amsterdam | And 11 more authors.
Cancer Research | Year: 2010

MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) was reported to be overexpressed and contributes to invasion and gemcitabine resistance in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). The aim of this study was to evaluate whether miR-21 expression was associated with the overall survival (OS) of PDAC patients treated with gemcitabine and to provide mechanistic insights for new therapeutic targets. miR-21 expression was evaluated in cells (including 7 PDAC cell lines, 7 primary cultures, fibroblasts, and a normal pancreatic ductal cell line) and tissues (neoplastic specimens from 81 PDAC patients and normal ductal samples) isolated by laser microdissection. The role of miR-21 on the pharmacologic effects of gemcitabine was studied with a specific miR-21 precursor (pre-miR-21). Patients with high miR-21 expression had a significantly shorter OS both in the metastatic and in the adjuvant setting. Multivariate analysis confirmed the prognostic significance of miR-21. miR-21 expression in primary cultures correlated with expression in their respective tissues and with gemcitabine resistance. Pre-miR-21 transfection significantly decreased antiproliferative effects and apoptosis induction by gemcitabine, whereas matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2/MMP-9 and vascular endothelial growth factor expression were upregulated. Addition of inhibitors of phosphoinositide 3-kinase and mammalian target of rapamycin resulted in decrease of phospho-Akt and prevented pre-miR-21-induced resistance to the proapoptotic effects of gemcitabine. miR-21 expression correlated with outcome in PDAC patients treated with gemcitabine. Modulation of apoptosis, Akt phosphorylation, and expression of genes involved in invasive behavior may contribute to the role of miR-21 in gemcitabine chemoresistance and to the rational development of new targeted combinations. ©2010 AACR.


Caponi S.,Unit Medical Oncology 2 | Funel N.,University of Pisa | Frampton A.E.,Imperial College London | Mosca F.,University of Pisa | And 12 more authors.
Annals of Oncology | Year: 2013

Background: This multicenter study evaluated three candidate microRNAs (miRNAs) (miR-21, miR-155 and miR-101) as potential biomarkers in intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) of the pancreas. Patients and methods: miRNA expression was quantified by quantitative RT-PCR in 86 laser-microdissected specimens, including 65 invasive IPMNs, 16 non-invasive IPMNs and 5 normal pancreatic ductal tissues. Univariate and multivariate analyses compared miRNAs and clinical parameters withoverall (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). Results: miR-21 and miR-155 were up-regulated in invasive IPMNs compared with non-invasive IPMNs, as well as in non-invasive IPMNs compared with normal tissues. Conversely, miR-101 levels were significantly higher in non-invasive IPMNs and normal tissues compared with invasive IPMNs. High levels of miR-21 were associated with worse OS [hazard ratio (HR) = 2.47, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.37-5.65, P = 0.0047]. Patients with high-miR-21 expression also had a shorter median DFS (10.9 versus 29.9 months, P = 0.01). Multivariate analysis confirmed miR-21 as independently prognostic for mortality and diseaseprogression (death risk: HR = 3.3, 95% CI = 1.5-7.0, P = 0.02; progression risk: HR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.2-4.8, P = 0.02), as well as positive lymph-node status (death risk: HR = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.1-6.3, P = 0.03; progression risk: HR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.0-4.8, P = 0.04). Conclusions: miR-21, miR-155 and miR-101 showed significant differences in invasive versus non-invasive IPMNs. miR-21 emerged as an independent prognostic biomarker in invasive IPMNs and should be validated in prospective studies. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Unit Medical Oncology 2
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology | Year: 2013

This multicenter study evaluated three candidate microRNAs (miRNAs) (miR-21, miR-155 and miR-101) as potential biomarkers in intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) of the pancreas.miRNA expression was quantified by quantitative RT-PCR in 86 laser-microdissected specimens, including 65 invasive IPMNs, 16 non-invasive IPMNs and 5 normal pancreatic ductal tissues. Univariate and multivariate analyses compared miRNAs and clinical parameters with overall (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS).miR-21 and miR-155 were up-regulated in invasive IPMNs compared with non-invasive IPMNs, as well as in non-invasive IPMNs compared with normal tissues. Conversely, miR-101 levels were significantly higher in non-invasive IPMNs and normal tissues compared with invasive IPMNs. High levels of miR-21 were associated with worse OS [hazard ratio (HR) = 2.47, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.37-5.65, P = 0.0047]. Patients with high-miR-21 expression also had a shorter median DFS (10.9 versus 29.9 months, P = 0.01). Multivariate analysis confirmed miR-21 as independently prognostic for mortality and disease progression (death risk: HR = 3.3, 95% CI = 1.5-7.0, P = 0.02; progression risk: HR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.2-4.8, P = 0.02), as well as positive lymph-node status (death risk: HR = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.1-6.3, P = 0.03; progression risk: HR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.0-4.8, P = 0.04).miR-21, miR-155 and miR-101 showed significant differences in invasive versus non-invasive IPMNs. miR-21 emerged as an independent prognostic biomarker in invasive IPMNs and should be validated in prospective studies.

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