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Victoria, Australia

Khadse J.,Medical Officer | Bhardwaj S.D.,Chirayu Medical College | Ruikar M.,VN Medical College
Online Journal of Health and Allied Sciences

Objectives: To assess knowledge, diagnostic and treatment practices of the referring private practitioners of Nagpur city regarding Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP). Methods: The study involved interview of 103 Private Practitioners (PPs) of Nagpur city. Knowledge of private practitioners was assessed based on questions related to diagnosis, categorization, treatment regimens & follow up. Practices of private practitioners were assessed based on which investigations and treatment regimen they advise & whether they offer supervised treatment. Their willingness to get involved in the programme was also recorded. Results: Only 49 (47.6%) private practitioners knew sputum smear examination as primary tool of diagnosis of TB. Only half, 52 (50.5%) of the private practitioners knew number of categories of tuberculosis correctly and 64 (62.1%) private practitioners did know how to categorize TB patients. Chest X-ray and Mantoux test (38.5%) was mainly used by the PPs for TB diagnosis. 42.7% of PPs were prescribing treatment for TB and among them only 8 were prescribing as per RNTCP guidelines and just one provided treatment under direct observation. Different combination of HRZE and HRZES was prescribed for variable period ranges from 2-8 months. And only 12 (11.6%) private practitioners expressed their willingness to get involved in RNTCP for TB control. Conclusion: There is lack of adequate knowledge, diagnostic and treatment practice among PPs as per RNTCP guidelines and further encouragement is required for their participation in the programme. Source

Park E.J.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration | Pai M.P.,Albany College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences | Dong T.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration | Zhang J.,Center for Drug Evaluation and Research | And 5 more authors.
Annals of Pharmacotherapy

BACKGROUND: Dosing adjustments for patients with impaired kidney function are often based on estimated creatinine clearance (eCrCl) because measuring kidney function is not always possible for dose adjustment. However, there is no consensus on the body size descriptor that should be used in the estimation equations. OBJECTIVE: To compare the use of alternative body size descriptors (ABSDs) on the performance of kidney function estimation equations compared with measured CrCl (mCrCl). METHODS: We combined 2 data sources with mCrCl: a Food and Drug Administration clinical trial database that includes subjects with body mass index (BMI) less than 40 kg/m 2 and published data from those 40 kg/m 2 or more. The 3 parent equations (Cockcroft-Gault [CG], Modification of Diet in Renal Disease [MDRD], Chronic Kidney Disease-Epidemiology Collaboration [CKDEPI]), and 14 ABSD-modified equations were compared with mCrCl for accuracy, bias, agreement, goodness of fit (R 2), and prediction error. These equations were also compared across mCrCl and BMI strata. RESULTS: Subjects (n = 590) were aged 19-80 years; 33.9% were female and BMI ranged from 17.2 to 95.6 kg/m 2. Compared with mCrCl, the use of total weight in the CG equation yielded low accuracy (12.5%) and significant bias (-107 mL/min) in the morbidly obese group. In contrast, the use of lean body weights (BMI ≥40 kg/m 2) and total ± adjusted weights (BMI <40 kg/m 2) with the CG equation yielded higher accuracy, greater than or equal to 60.7% across all BMI strata, and was unbiased. Transforming the MDRD or CKDEPI equations with body surface area improved accuracy only at mCrCl of 30-80 mL/min and increased the overall prediction error. CONCLUSIONS: No kidney function equation was consistently accurate and unbiased across weight, mCrCl, and estimate ranges. The accuracy and overestimation bias of the CG equation in obese subjects was improved through the selective use of total, adjusted, and lean body weight by BMI strata. Source

Gupta A.,Ottawa Hospital | Gupta P.,Medical Officer
Minerva Urologica e Nefrologica

BK virus is an increasingly identified complication in renal allograft recipients. During the last decade, the use of potent immunosuppressive medications has led to reemergence of this virus. Despite the paucity of randomized trials, we have come a long way in the knowledge of BK virus associated nephropathy. This review highlights the epidemiological, pathogenic, pathological, and clinical aspects of BK virus. It summarizes advances made in prophylaxis and treatment strategies to curtail this virus in an era of modern immunosuppression. The old word of wisdom-prevention is better than cure- might be relevant in context of BK virus prophylaxis with flouroquinolones in years to follow. Source

Van Der Meer J.W.M.,Radboud University Nijmegen | Fears R.,German National Academy of science Leopoldina | Davies D.S.C.,Medical Officer | Meulen V.T.,University of Wurzburg | Meulen V.T.,Inter Academy Partnership
Nature Reviews Drug Discovery

Urgent action to tackle antimicrobial resistance must take account of all the scientific opportunities available, find new resources to support academia and emphasize the importance of innovation to policy-makers and to the general public. Source

Gupta N.,National Center for Disease control | Arora S.,Apollo Hospital | Kundra S.,Medical Officer
Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology

Background: Moraxella catarrhalis is gaining significance as a pathogen over few decades because of increased rate of isolation in respiratory specimens and due to emergence of multidrug resistant strains. Therefore, appropriate antimicrobial agents are required for eradication and prevention of spread of the organism. Material and Methods:-The study was conducted over 1-year period inpatients of lower respiratory tract infections (L.R.T.I.) in P.G.I.M.S. Rohtak (Haryana). Assessment of clinical significance of M.catarrhalis was ascertained on the basis of preformed criteria. Results: A total of 63 clinically significant M. catarrhalis were isolated from a tertiary care hospital. The isolates showed maximum resistance to cotrimoxazole (82.5%), pencillin (77.7%), and ampicillin (71.4%) while susceptibility was maximum to cefotaxime (87.3%) followed by tetracycline (85.7%) ciprofloxacin (84.1%), erythromycin (80.9%) amikacin (79.3%), gentamycin (77.7%), and cefazolin (76.2%). Multidrug resistance to >3 antimicrobials was seen in 22 (34.9%) of cases. Conclusions: Predominant or pure growth of M.catarrhalis in throat swabs from cases of L.R.T.I. should be reported and treated by microbiologist and clinician respectively. Antibiotic therapy should be decided based on sensitivity report for rapid respose and recovery of patients. Source

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