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Firenze, Italy

Bellavite P.,University of Verona | Signorini A.,Medical Office | Marzotto M.,University of Verona | Moratti E.,University of Verona | And 2 more authors.

It has been claimed that the homeopathic principle of 'similarity' (or 'similia') and the use of individualized remedies in extremely low doses conflicts with scientific laws, but this opinion can be disputed on the basis of recent scientific advances. Several mechanisms to explain the responsiveness of cells to ultra-low doses and the similarity as inversion of drug effects, have again been suggested in the framework of hormesis and modern paradoxical pharmacology. Low doses or high dilutions of a drug interact only with the enhanced sensitivities of regulatory systems, functioning as minute harmful stimuli to trigger specific compensatory healing reactions. Here we review hypotheses about homeopathic drug action at cellular and molecular levels, and present a new conceptual model of the principle of similarity based on allosteric drug action. While many common drugs act through orthostatic chemical interactions aimed at blocking undesired activities of enzymes or receptors, allosteric interactions are associated with dynamic conformational changes and functional transitions in target proteins, which enhance or inhibit specific cellular actions in normal or disease states. The concept of allostery and the way it controls physiological activities can be broadened to include diluted/dynamized compounds, and may constitute a working hypothesis for the study of molecular mechanisms underlying the inversion of drug effects. © 2015 The Authors. Source

Defer A.,Medical Office | Schober H.-C.,Klinikum Sudstadt Rostock | Abendroth K.,Regional Committee of Experts on Osteoporosis Regionaler Expertenkreis Osteoporose REKO Deutschland e.V. | Hofbauer L.C.,TU Dresden
Archives of Osteoporosis

Summary: There are large regional differences in the incidence of hip fracture in Germany. These differences were unexpected and do not follow a north-to-south or an east-to-west gradient. But they are of high socioeconomic importance and cannot be explained by geographic location, the age structure of the population, and only to a small extent by the regulation of specific medication.Introduction: The most important complications and the major cost factors of osteoporosis are fractures. In order to develop strategies for fracture prevention, knowledge about different incidence rates and possible causes is necessary.Methods: In order to detect persistent differences in the incidence of hip fractures between the former eastern and western states of Germany, structured diagnostic data of patients hospitalized between 2000 and 2011 were used to determine the regional incidence of hip fractures in the individual federal states of Germany. To account for error due to repeated admissions and double registrations, the frequency of fractures was corrected by a factor of 0.89.Results: Our analysis of the 10-year period from 2000 to 2011 did not confirm the difference between eastern and western Germany reported in the national literature, or the north-south gradient for Germany as reported in several European publications. We found significant differences in the incidence of fractures in adjacent territorial states such as Schleswig-Holstein and Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania or Saxony and Thuringia. Particularly, high incidence rates over the entire period were noted in the city-states of Hamburg, Berlin, and Bremen.Conclusion: The reason for such differences is still unclear and, thus, the consequences of urbanization must be considered to explain diverse incidence rates. In general, the investigation of causes should be based on the use of a multivariate model that takes additional factors such as specific drug use, socioeconomic aspects, environmental aspects, education, and health care into account. There are large regional differences in the incidence of hip fracture in Germany. These differences were unexpected and do not follow a north-to-south or an east-to-west gradient. But they are of high socioeconomic importance and cannot be explained by geographic location, the age structure of the population and only to a small extent by the regulation of specific medication. © 2014, International Osteoporosis Foundation and National Osteoporosis Foundation. Source

Feliks Przylipiak A.,Medical University of Bialystok | Galicka E.,Medical University of Bialystok | Donejko M.,Medical University of Bialystok | Niczyporuk M.,Medical University of Bialystok | Przylipiak J.,Medical Office
Drug Design, Development and Therapy

Background: Liposuction is a type of aesthetic surgery that has been performed on humans for decades. There is not much literature addressing the subject matter of pre- and post-surgery blood parameters, although this information is rather interesting. Documentation on patients who received laser-assisted liposuction treatment is particularly scarce. Until now, there has been no literature showing values of platelets, lymphocytes, and neutrophils after liposuction. Purpose: The aim of the work is to analyze and interpret values of platelets, lymphocytes and neutrophils in patient blood before and after liposuction, a surgery in which an extraordinarily large amount of potent drugs are used. Moreover, the aim is to compare values changes in patients of conventional and laser-assisted liposuction. Material and methods: We evaluated standard blood samples in patients prior to and after liposuction. This paper covers the number of platelets, lymphocytes, and neutrophils. A total of 54 patients were examined. Moreover, we compared the change in postoperative values in laser-assisted liposuction patients with the change of values in conventional liposuction patients. A paired two-sided Student's t-test was used for statistical evaluation. P, 0.005 was acknowledged to be statistically significant. Results: Values of platelets were raised both in conventional and in laser-assisted liposuction patients, but this difference was statistically non-significant and levels of platelets were still normal and within the range of blood levels in healthy patients. Values of neutrophils rose by up to 79.49% ± 7.74% standard deviation (SD) and values of lymphocytes dropped by up to 12.68% ± 5.61% SD. The before/after variances of conventional tumescent local anesthesia liposuction and variations in laser-assisted liposuction were similar for all measured parameters; they also showed no statistically significant differences between before and after surgery. The mean value of total operation time without laser-assistance was 3 hours 42 minutes (±57 minutes SD, range 2 hours 50 minutes to 5 hours 10 minutes). Surgeries with laser-assistance were on average 16 minutes shorter with a mean duration of 3 hours 26 minutes (±45 minutes SD, range 2 hours 40 minutes to 4 hours 10 minutes). The difference was not statistically significant (P, 0.06). The mean value of aspirate volume for liposuctions performed without laser support was 2,618 mL (±633.7 SD, range 700 mL to 3,500 mL). Mean aspirate volume for liposuctions with laser assistance was increased by up to 61 mL (2,677 mL ± 499.5 SD, range 1,800 mL to 3,500 mL). The difference was not statistically significant (P, 0.71). Conclusion: We conclude that conventional liposuction and laser-assisted liposuction have a similar influence on platelets, lymphocytes, and neutrophils in patients. Moreover, laser-assisted liposuction seems to be less time consuming than conventional liposuction. © 2013 Przylipiak et al. Source

Tabet J.-Y.,Les Grands Pres | Malergue M.-C.,Institute Jacques Cartier | Meurin P.,Les Grands Pres | Not D.,RCTs | And 2 more authors.
Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases

Background: The distribution of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) - a key factor in coronary artery disease (CAD) patient management and prognostication - is poorly documented. Objective: To determine LVEF and heart rate (HR) values, and describe the management of stable CAD patients in France. Methods: The INDYCE survey was a prospective, multicentre registry of consecutive stable CAD outpatients attending a cardiology consultation. The survey focused on LVEF values measured using the echocardiographic Simpson biplane method. Drug therapy, resting HR, blood pressure and symptoms were also recorded. Results: Overall, 3119 patients (68.4 ± 11.0 years; 80% men) were enrolled. LVEF was 56.1 ± 11.8% on average, and was poor (< 40%) and moderately impaired (40-50%) in 9.6% (n = 298) and 19.8% (n = 619) of cases, respectively. Symptomatic angina pectoris was present in 19.2% of cases and only 40.6% of patients were asymptomatic (no angina and NYHA class ≤ I) despite relatively aggressive management (79.0% of patients had undergone coronary angioplasty and/or bypass graft). Interestingly, 14.1% of patients with LVEF less than 40% were asymptomatic. In multivariable analysis, LVEF less than 40% was associated most strongly with symptomatic status (odds ratio 3.82; 95% CI 2.59-5.63; P < 0.0001), together with female sex, age greater than 75 years, diabetes, HR greater or equal to 70 bpm, sedentariness, obesity and disease duration. Conclusion: Only 9.6% of stable CAD patients had severe left ventricular dysfunction; among them, 14.1% were strictly asymptomatic. This could justify regular LVEF measurement in CAD patients. Three potentially reversible factors (HR ≥ 70 bpm, being overweight and sedentariness) were linked independently to the presence of symptoms. © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. Source

Bursztejn A.-C.,Nancy University Hospital Center | Briggs T.A.,University of Manchester | Del Toro Duany Y.,Harvard University | Anderson B.H.,University of Manchester | And 14 more authors.
British Journal of Dermatology

Cutaneous lesions described as chilblain lupus occur in the context of familial chilblain lupus or Aicardi-Goutières syndrome. To date, seven genes related to Aicardi-Goutières syndrome have been described. The most recently described encodes the cytosolic double-stranded RNA receptor IFIH1 (also known as MDA5), a key component of the antiviral type I interferon-mediated innate immune response. Enhanced type I interferon signalling secondary to gain-of-function mutations in IFIH1 can result in a range of neuroinflammatory phenotypes including classical Aicardi-Goutières syndrome. It is of note that none of the patients with a neurological phenotype so far described with mutations in this gene was reported to demonstrate cutaneous involvement. We present a family segregating a heterozygous pathogenic mutation in IFIH1 showing dermatological involvement as a prominent feature, variably associated with neurological disturbance and premature tooth loss. All three affected individuals exhibited increased expression of interferon-stimulated genes in whole blood, and the mutant protein resulted in enhanced interferon signalling in vitro, both in the basal state and following ligand stimulation. Our results further extend the phenotypic spectrum associated with mutations in IFIH1, indicating that the disease can be confined predominantly to the skin, while also highlighting phenotypic overlap with both Aicardi-Goutières syndrome and Singleton-Merten syndrome. © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists. Source

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