Center for Medical Imaging

United Kingdom

Center for Medical Imaging

United Kingdom
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Kakkar L.S.,University College London | Bennett O.F.,University College London | Siow B.,University College London | Richardson S.,University College London | And 5 more authors.
NeuroImage | Year: 2017

Mapping axon diameters within the central and peripheral nervous system could play an important role in our understanding of nerve pathways, and help diagnose and monitor an array of neurological disorders. Numerous diffusion MRI methods have been proposed for imaging axon diameters, most of which use conventional single diffusion encoding (SDE) spin echo sequences. However, a growing number of studies show that oscillating gradient spin echo (OGSE) sequences can provide additional advantages over conventional SDE sequences. Recent theoretical results suggest that this is especially the case in realistic scenarios, such as when fibres have unknown or dispersed orientation. In the present study, we adopt the ActiveAx approach to experimentally investigate the extent of these advantages by comparing the performances of SDE and trapezoidal OGSE in viable nerve tissue. We optimise SDE and OGSE ActiveAx protocols for a rat peripheral nerve tissue and test their performance using Monte Carlo simulations and a 800 mT/m gradient strength pre-clinical imaging experiment. The imaging experiment uses excised sciatic nerve from a rat's leg placed in a MRI compatible viable isolated tissue (VIT) maintenance chamber, which keeps the tissue in a viable physiological state that preserves the structural complexity of the nerve and enables lengthy scan times. We compare model estimates to histology, which we perform on the nerve post scanning. Optimisation produces a three-shell SDE and OGSE ActiveAx protocol, with the OGSE protocol consisting of one SDE sequence and two low-frequency oscillating gradient waveform sequences. Both simulation and imaging results show that the OGSE ActiveAx estimates of the axon diameter index have a higher accuracy and a higher precision compared to those from SDE. Histology estimates of the axon diameter index in our nerve tissue samples are 4-5.8 μm and these are excellently matched with the OGSE estimates 4.2-6.5 μm, while SDE overestimates at 5.2-8 μm for the same sample. We found OGSE estimates to be more precise with on average a 0.5 μm standard deviation compared to the SDE estimates which have a 2 μm standard deviation. When testing the robustness of the estimates when the number of the diffusion gradient directions reduces, we found that both OGSE and SDE estimates are affected, however OGSE is more robust to these changes than the SDE. Overall, these results suggest, quantitatively and in in vivo conditions, that low-frequency OGSE sequences may provide improved accuracy of axon diameter mapping compared to standard SDE sequences. © 2017 The Authors.


Kakkar L.S.,University College London | Atkinson D.,Center for Medical Imaging | Chan R.W.,Center for Medical Imaging | Siow B.,University College London | And 2 more authors.
Mathematics and Visualization | Year: 2017

Axon diameter can play a key role in the function and performance of nerve pathways of the central and peripheral nervous system. Previously, a number of techniques to measure axon diameter using diffusion MR I have been proposed, majority of which uses single diffusion encoding (SDE) spin-echo sequence. However, recent theoretical research suggests that low-frequency oscillating gradient spin echo (OGSE) offers benefits over SDE for imaging diameters when fibres are of unknown orientation. Furthermore, it suggests that resolution limit for clinical scanners (gradient strength of 60–80 mT/m) is ~ 6 µm. Here we investigate the sensitivity of OGSE to fibre diameters experimentally on a clinical scanner, using microcapillaries of unknown orientation. We use the orientationally invariant OGSE ActiveAx method to image microcapillaries with diameters of 5, 10 or 20 µm. As predicted by theory, we find that 5 µm diameters are undistinguishable from zero. Furthermore, we find accurate and precise estimates for 10 and 20 µm. Finally, we find that low frequency oscillating gradient waveforms are optimal for accurate diameter estimation. © Springer International Publishing AG 2017.


Chan R.W.,Center for Medical Imaging | Von Deuster C.,ETH Zurich | Von Deuster C.,King's College London | Giese D.,King's College London | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Magnetic Resonance | Year: 2014

Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of moving organs is gaining increasing attention but robust performance requires sequence modifications and dedicated correction methods to account for system imperfections. In this study, eddy currents in the "unipolar" Stejskal-Tanner and the velocity-compensated "bipolar" spin-echo diffusion sequences were investigated and corrected for using a magnetic field monitoring approach in combination with higher-order image reconstruction. From the field-camera measurements, increased levels of second-order eddy currents were quantified in the unipolar sequence relative to the bipolar diffusion sequence while zeroth and linear orders were found to be similar between both sequences. Second-order image reconstruction based on field-monitoring data resulted in reduced spatial misalignment artifacts and residual displacements of less than 0.43 mm and 0.29 mm (in the unipolar and bipolar sequences, respectively) after second-order eddy-current correction. Results demonstrate the need for second-order correction in unipolar encoding schemes but also show that bipolar sequences benefit from second-order reconstruction to correct for incomplete intrinsic cancellation of eddy-currents. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Menys A.,Center for Medical Imaging | Menys A.,University College London | Hamy V.,Center for Medical Imaging | Hamy V.,University College London | And 9 more authors.
Physics in Medicine and Biology | Year: 2014

At present, registration-based quantification of bowel motility from dynamic MRI is limited to breath-hold studies. Here we validate a dual-registration technique robust to respiratory motion for the assessment of small bowel and colonic motility. Small bowel datasets were acquired in breath-hold and free-breathing in 20 healthy individuals. A pre-processing step using an iterative registration of the low rank component of the data was applied to remove respiratory motion from the free breathing data. Motility was then quantified with an existing optic-flow (OF) based registration technique to form a dual-stage approach, termed Dual Registration of Abdominal Motion (DRAM). The benefit of respiratory motion correction was assessed by (1) assessing the fidelity of automatically propagated segmental regions of interest (ROIs) in the small bowel and colon and (2) comparing parametric motility maps to a breath-hold ground truth. DRAM demonstrated an improved ability to propagate ROIs through free-breathing small bowel and colonic motility data, with median error decreased by 90% and 55%, respectively. Comparison between global parametric maps showed high concordance between breath-hold data and free-breathing DRAM. Quantification of segmental and global motility in dynamic MR data is more accurate and robust to respiration when using the DRAM approach. © 2014 Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine.


Tremoulheac B.,University College London | Atkinson D.,Center for Medical Imaging | Arridge S.R.,University College London
Proceedings - International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging | Year: 2013

Higher spatial and temporal resolution of dynamic MR imaging can be achieved by sparse and sub-Nyquist sampling of (k-t)-space. However, direct inversion of this inverse problem can result in artefact in reconstructed images. In combination with a golden angle pseudo-radial acquisition, we propose in this paper to use prior information based on the rank to regularize the problem. The iterative scheme to reconstruct the dynamic imaging series is based on an accelerated proximal gradient algorithm designed for large-scale low-rank matrix completion. The method is tested on simulated and clinical datasets and, besides being simple, proves to be fast and efficient for high acceleration factors. © 2013 IEEE.


Menys A.,Center for Medical Imaging | Makanyanga J.,Center for Medical Imaging | Plumb A.,Center for Medical Imaging | Bhatnagar G.,Center for Medical Imaging | And 3 more authors.
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases | Year: 2016

Background: Inflammation-related enteric dysmotility has been postulated as a cause for abdominal symptoms in Crohn's disease (CD). We investigated the relationship between magnetic resonance imaging-quantified small bowel (SB) motility, inflammatory activity, and patient symptom burden. Methods: The Harvey-Bradshaw index (HBI) and fecal calprotectin were prospectively measured in 53 patients with CD (median age, 35; range, 18-78 years) the day before magnetic resonance enterography, which included a dynamic (cine), breath-hold motility sequence, repeated to encompass the whole SB volume. A validated registration-based motility quantitation technique produced motility maps, and regions of interest were drawn to include all morphologically normal SB (i.e., excluding diseased bowel). Global SB motility was correlated with calprotectin, HBI, and symptom components (well-being, pain, and diarrhea). Adjustment for age, sex, smoking, and surgical history was made using multivariate linear regression. Results: Median calprotectin was 336 (range, 0-1280). Median HBI, motility mean, and motility variance were 3 (range, 0-16), 0.33 (0.18-0.51), and 0.01 (0.0014-0.034), respectively. Motility variance was significantly negatively correlated with calprotectin (rho-0.33, P 0.015), total HBI (rho-0.45, P < 0.001), well-being (rho-0.4, P 0.003), pain (rho-0.27, P 0.05), and diarrhea (rho-0.4, P 0.0025). The associations remained highly significant after adjusting for covariates. There was no association between mean motility and calprotectin or HBI (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Reduced motility variance in morphologically normal SB is associated with patient symptoms and fecal calprotectin levels, supporting the hypothesis that inflammation-related enteric dysmotility may explain refractory abdominal symptoms in CD. © 2016 Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America, Inc.


Dorrius M.D.,Center for Medical Imaging | Jansen-Van Der Weide M.C.,Center for Medical Imaging | Van Ooijen P.M.A.,Center for Medical Imaging | Pijnappel R.M.,Center for Medical Imaging | Oudkerk M.,Center for Medical Imaging
European Radiology | Year: 2011

Objectives To evaluate the additional value of computer-aided detection (CAD) in breast MRI by assessing radiologists' accuracy in discriminating benign from malignant breast lesions. Methods A literature search was performed with inclusion of relevant studies using a commercially available CAD system with automatic colour mapping. Two independent researchers assessed the quality of the studies. The accuracy of the radiologists' performance with and without CAD was presented as pooled sensitivity and specificity. Results Of 587 articles, 10 met the inclusion criteria, all of good methodological quality. Experienced radiologists reached comparable pooled sensitivity and specificity before and after using CAD (sensitivity: without CAD: 89%; 95% CI: 78-94%, with CAD: 89%; 95%CI: 81-94%) (specificity: without CAD: 86%; 95% CI: 79-91%, with CAD: 82%; 95% CI: 76-87%). For residents the pooled sensitivity increased from 72% (95% CI: 62-81%) without CAD to 89% (95% CI: 80-94%) with CAD, however, not significantly. Concerning specificity, the results were similar (without CAD: 79%; 95% CI: 69-86%, with CAD: 78%; 95% CI: 69-84%). Conclusions CAD in breast MRI has little influence on the sensitivity and specificity of experienced radiologists and therefore their interpretation remains essential. However, residents or inexperienced radiologists seem to benefit from CAD concerning breast MRI evaluation. © The Author(s) 2011.

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