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Borelli I.,University of Turin | Borelli I.,Medical Genetics Unit Aou Citta Della Salute E Della Science Of Turin | Casalis Cavalchini G.C.,Medical Genetics Unit Aou Citta Della Salute E Della Science Of Turin | Del Peschio S.,University of Turin | And 14 more authors.
Familial Cancer | Year: 2014

The MLH1 c.2252-2253delAA mutation was found in 11 unrelated families from a restricted area south-west of Turin among 140 families with mutations in the mismatch repair genes. The mutation is located in the highly conserved C-terminal region, responsible for dimerization with the PMS2 protein. Twenty-five tumour tissues from 61 individuals with the c.2252-2253delAA mutation were tested for microsatellite instability (MSI) and protein expression. We compared the clinical features of these families versus the rest of our cohort and screened for a founder effect. All but one tumours showed the MSI-high mutator phenotype. Normal, focal and lack of MLH1 staining were observed in 16, 36 and 48 % of tumours, respectively. PMS2 expression was always lost. The mutation co-segregated with Lynch syndrome-related cancers in all informative families. All families but one fulfilled Amsterdam criteria, a frequency higher than in other MLH1 mutants. This was even more evident for AC II (72.7 vs. 57.5 %). Moreover, all families had at least one colon cancer diagnosed before 50 years and one case with multiple Lynch syndrome-related tumours. Interestingly, a statistically significant (p = 0.0057) higher frequency of pancreatic tumours was observed compared to families with other MLH1 mutations: 8.2 % of affected individuals versus 1.6 %. Haplotype analysis demonstrated a common ancestral origin of the mutation, which originated about 1,550 years ago. The mutation is currently classified as having an uncertain clinical significance. Clinical features, tissue analysis and co-segregation with disease strongly support the hypothesis that the MLH1 c.2252-2253delAA mutation has a pathogenic effect. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source

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