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Agency: GTR | Branch: MRC | Program: | Phase: Intramural | Award Amount: 562.56K | Year: 2009

Abstracts are not currently available in GtR for all funded research. This is normally because the abstract was not required at the time of proposal submission, but may be because it included sensitive information such as personal details.


Darlenski R.,Medical Faculty | Surber C.,University of Basel | Surber C.,Spirig AG | Fluhr J.W.,Charite University Clinic
British Journal of Dermatology | Year: 2010

Summary Skin, being exposed directly to the environment, represents a unique model for demonstrating the synergistic effects of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on the ageing process. Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is the major factor among exogenous stressors responsible for premature skin ageing. The problem of skin ageing has captured public attention and has an important social impact. Different therapeutic approaches have been developed to treat cutaneous ageing and to diminish or prevent the negative effects of UVR. Topical retinoids represent an important and powerful class of molecules in the dermatologist's hands for the treatment of photodamaged skin. Since their introduction more than 20 years ago, topical retinoids have shown beneficial efficacy and good safety profiles in the management of photodamaged skin, and as therapeutic anti-ageing agents. This review provides a brief retrospective of the development of topical retinoids in the treatment of photodamaged skin, elucidates their mechanism of action, delineates their use and addresses clinical, pharmaceutical and regulatory issues in connection with their intended use. © 2010 British Association of Dermatologists. Source


Shirikova I.A.,Medical Faculty
Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences | Year: 2015

The research was aimed at producing a methodology of prevention of complications of cardio-vascular diseases with elderly patients who have prehypertension. In a gerontological clinic 45 people of both sexes aged between 65 and 87 by the start of the research have been monitored for five years. All patients had their blood pressure measured constantly for 24 hours and compared with the dynamics of pressure during the day and night time. Patients were prescribed angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE inhibitor) - Ramipril in a daily dose of 10 mg as a monthly course with a consequent monthly break for five years. The results of the multiple measuring of arterial pressure revealed statistically significant profiles and predictability of arterial blood changes with the patients. It has allowed us to use the term «volatility» to describe the dynamics of arterial pressure changes in a way similar to currency rate changes on the exchange. This is why the «volatility» term is even part of the headline of our article. Basing on changes of arterial pressure with in 24 hours, patients were split into two groups. The first group included patients who had a high blood pressure mainly during the daytime. These patients had Ramipril prescribed in a 10 mg/day dose to be taken in the morning. The second group includes patients whose arterial pressure rose at night. Patients of this group had a prescription for Ramipril in a dose of 10 mg/day in the evening. During the five years of monitoring five out of 45 people died. The cause of death of three of them was brain disorders (brain attack with two people) and myocardial infarction with one person. Two people died of oncological diseases. The remaining 40 patients thanks to the prescription of Ramipril which takes into consideration the daily fluctuations of arterial blood pressure were alive and felt well despite their elderly age. Such an approach to prescribing Ramipril ensures efficient prevention of cardio-vascular complications and encephalitic disorders with elderly patients in a prehypertension condition. Source


Larsen T.M.,Copenhagen University | Dalskov S.-M.,Copenhagen University | Van Baak M.,Maastricht University | Jebb S.A.,Medical Research Council Human Nutrition Research | And 11 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2010

BACKGROUND: Studies of weight-control diets that are high in protein or low in glycemic index have reached varied conclusions, probably owing to the fact that the studies had insufficient power. METHODS: We enrolled overweight adults from eight European countries who had lost at least 8% of their initial body weight with a 3.3-MJ (800-kcal) low-calorie diet. Participants were randomly assigned, in a two-by-two factorial design, to one of five ad libitum diets to prevent weight regain over a 26-week period: a low-protein and low-glycemic-index diet, a low-protein and high-glycemic-index diet, a high-protein and low-glycemic-index diet, a high-protein and high-glycemic-index diet, or a control diet. RESULTS: A total of 1209 adults were screened (mean age, 41 years; body-mass index [the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters], 34), of whom 938 entered the low-calorie-diet phase of the study. A total of 773 participants who completed that phase were randomly assigned to one of the five maintenance diets; 548 completed the intervention (71%). Fewer participants in the high-protein and the low-glycemic-index groups than in the low-protein-high-glycemic-index group dropped out of the study (26.4% and 25.6%, respectively, vs. 37.4%; P=0.02 and P=0.01 for the respective comparisons). The mean initial weight loss with the low-calorie diet was 11.0 kg. In the analysis of participants who completed the study, only the low-protein-high-glycemic-index diet was associated with subsequent significant weight regain (1.67 kg; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.48 to 2.87). In an intention-to-treat analysis, the weight regain was 0.93 kg less (95% CI, 0.31 to 1.55) in the groups assigned to a high-protein diet than in those assigned to a low-protein diet (P=0.003) and 0.95 kg less (95% CI, 0.33 to 1.57) in the groups assigned to a low-glycemic-index diet than in those assigned to a high-glycemic-index diet (P=0.003). The analysis involving participants who completed the intervention produced similar results. The groups did not differ significantly with respect to diet-related adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: In this large European study, a modest increase in protein content and a modest reduction in the glycemic index led to an improvement in study completion and maintenance of weight loss. (Funded by the European Commission; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00390637.) Copyright © 2010 Massachusetts Medical Society. Source


Bertrand D.,Medical Faculty
Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience | Year: 2010

Continuing to discover how the brain works is one of the great challenges ahead of us. Although understanding the brain anatomy and its functional organization provided a first and indispensable foundation, it became clear that a static view was insufficient. To understand the complexity of neuronal communication, it is necessary to examine the chemical nature of the neurotransmission and, using the example of the acetylcholine receptors, follow the different layers of networks that can be distinguished. The natural alkaloid nicotine contained in tobacco leaves acts as an agonist with a subclass of acetylcholine receptors, and provides an interesting tool to approach brain functions. Analysis of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, which are ligand gated channels, revealed that these receptors are expressed at different critical locations on the neurons including the synaptic boutons, neurites, cell bodies, and even on the axons. These receptors can modulate the activity at the microcircuit synaptic level, in the cell processing of information, and, by acting on the velocity of action potential, the synchrony of communication between brain areas. These actions at multiple levels of brain organization provide an example of the complexity of brain neurocircuitry and an illustration of the relevance of this knowledge for psychiatry. © 2010 LLS SAS. Source

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