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Papaharilaou Y.,Foundation for Research and Technology Hellas | Aristokleous N.,Cyprus University of Technology | Seimenis I.,Democritus University of Thrace | Seimenis I.,Ayios Therissos Medical Diagnostic Center | And 6 more authors.
Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing | Year: 2013

Head and neck postures may cause morphology changes to the geometry of the carotid bifurcation (CB) that alter the low and oscillating wall shear stress (WSS) regions previously reported as important in the development of atherosclerosis. Here the right and left CB were imaged by MRI in two healthy subjects in the neutral head posture with the subject in the supine position and in two other head postures with the subject in the prone position: (1) rightward rotation up to 80, and (2) leftward rotation up to 80. Image-based computational models were constructed to investigate the effect of posture on arterial geometry and local hemodynamics. The area exposure to unfavorable hemodynamics, based on thresholds set for oscillatory shear index (OSI), WSS and relative residence time, was used to quantify the hemodynamic impact on the wall. Torsion of the head was found to: (1) cause notable changes in the bifurcation and internal carotid artery angles and, in most cases, on cross-sectional area ratios for common, internal and external carotid artery, (2) change the spatial distribution of wall regions exposed to unfavorable hemodynamics, and (3) cause a marked change in the hemodynamic burden on the wall when the OSI was considered. These findings suggest that head posture may be associated with the genesis and development of atherosclerotic disease as well as complications in stenotic and stented vessels. © 2012 International Federation for Medical and Biological Engineering. Source


Moutsatsos A.,National and Kapodistrian University of Athens | Karaiskos P.,National and Kapodistrian University of Athens | Petrokokkinos L.,National and Kapodistrian University of Athens | Zourari K.,National and Kapodistrian University of Athens | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Physics: Conference Series | Year: 2010

The nearly tissue equivalent MRI properties and the unique ability of registering 3D dose distributions of polymer gels were exploited to assess the total geometrical accuracy in clinical Gamma Knife applications, taking into account the combined effect of the unit's mechanical accuracy, dose delivery precision and the geometrical distortions inherent in MR images used for irradiation planning. Comparison between planned and experimental data suggests that the MR-related distortions due to susceptibility effects dominate the total clinical geometrical accuracy which was found within 1 mm. The dosimetric effect of the observed sub-millimetre uncertainties on single shot GK irradiation plans was assessed using the target percentage coverage criterion, and a considerable target dose underestimation was found. © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd. Source


Aristokleous N.,Cyprus University of Technology | Seimenis I.,Ayios Therissos Medical Diagnostic Center | Papaharilaou Y.,Foundation for Research and Technology Hellas | Georgiou G.C.,University of Cyprus | And 4 more authors.
IEEE Transactions on Information Technology in Biomedicine | Year: 2011

Segmented cross-sectional MRI images were used to construct 3-D virtual models of the carotid bifurcation in ten healthy volunteers. Geometric features, such as bifurcation angle, internal carotid artery (ICA) angle, planarity angle, asymmetry angle, tortuosity, curvature, bifurcation area ratio, ICA/common carotid artery (CCA), external carotid artery (ECA)/CCA, and ECA/ICA diameter ratios, were calculated for both carotids in two head postures: 1) the supine neutral position; and 2) the prone sleeping position with head rotation to the right (∼80°). The results obtained have shown that head rotation causes 1) significant variations in bifurcation angle [32% mean increase for the right carotid (RC) and 21% mean decrease for the left carotid (LC)] and internal carotid artery angle (97% mean increase for the RC, 43% mean decrease for the LC); 2) a slight increase in planarity and asymmetry angles for both RC and LC; 3) minor and variable curvature changes for the CCA and for the branches; 4) slight tortuosity changes for the braches but not for the CCA; and 5) unsubstantial alterations in area and diameter ratios (percentage changes < 10). The significant geometric changes observed in most subjects with head posture may also cause significant changes in bifurcation hemodynamics and warrant future investigation of the hemodynamic parameters related to the development of atherosclerotic disease such as low oscillating wall shear stress and particle residence times. © 2006 IEEE. Source

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