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Milwaukee, WI, United States

The Medical College of Wisconsin, or simply MCW, is a private, freestanding medical school and graduate school of science located in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. It was formerly affiliated with Marquette University, but has operated as an independent institution since 1967. MCW is accredited by the Higher Learning Commission of the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools and by the Liaison Committee on Medical Education . The NCA is the accrediting body for all institutions of higher education in the College's geographic region and the LCME is the accrediting body of all US medical schools. Along with the University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, it is one of only two medical schools in Wisconsin, and it is the only private medical school in the state.More than 1,350 faculty physicians with MCW provide adult and pediatric care to more than 425,000 patients, representing more than 1.6 million patient visits annually. Wikipedia.

Jackson W.T.,Medical College of Wisconsin
Virology | Year: 2015

Studies of the cellular autophagy pathway have exploded over the past twenty years. Now appreciated as a constitutive degradative mechanism that promotes cellular homeostasis, autophagy is also required for a variety of developmental processes, cellular stress responses, and immune pathways. Autophagy certainly acts as both an anti-viral and pro-viral pathway, and the roles of autophagy depend on the virus, the cell type, and the cellular environment. The goal of this review is to summarize, in brief, what we know so far about the relationship between autophagy and viruses, particularly for those who are not familiar with the field. With a massive amount of relevant published data, it is simply not possible to be comprehensive, or to provide a complete "parade of viruses", and apologies are offered to researchers whose work is not described herein. Rather, this review is organized around general themes regarding the relationship between autophagy and animal viruses. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. Source

Amirkhanian Y.A.,Medical College of Wisconsin
Current HIV/AIDS Reports | Year: 2014

Worldwide, men who have sex with men (MSM) remain one of the most HIV-vulnerable community populations. A global public health priority is developing new methods of reaching MSM, understanding HIV transmission patterns, and intervening to reduce their risk. Increased attention is being given to the role that MSM networks play in HIV epidemiology. This review of MSM network research studies demonstrates that: (1) Members of the same social network often share similar norms, attitudes, and HIV risk behavior levels; (2) Network interventions are feasible and powerful for reducing unprotected sex and potentially for increasing HIV testing uptake; (3) HIV vulnerability among African American MSM increases when an individual enters a high-risk sexual network characterized by high density and racial homogeneity; and (4) Networks are primary sources of social support for MSM, particularly for those living with HIV, with greater support predicting higher care uptake and adherence. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media. Source

Turaga K.K.,Medical College of Wisconsin | Kvols L.K.,H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute
CA Cancer Journal for Clinicians | Year: 2011

Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs) are relatively rare tumors that arise from the diffuse neuroendocrine system. This heterogeneous group of tumors was often considered a single entity. This belied their biological diversity, and the biggest advance in understanding these tumors over the past decades has been in understanding this diversity. Diagnosis of these tumors has been aided by advances in pathological diagnosis and classification and tumor imaging with endoscopic ultrasound and somatostatin receptor fusion imaging. Genetic and molecular advances have identified molecular targets in the treatment of these tumors. Surgery remains the mainstay of treatment, amply supported by interventional radiological techniques, including embolization. Treatment of metastatic disease has improved significantly with the addition of several new agents, including tyrosine kinase inhibitors, mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors, and yttrium-90-DOTA (1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7, 10-tetraacetic acid) and lutetium-177-DOTA octreotate. Despite significant advances in the understanding and management of GEP-NETs, the survival of patients remains largely unchanged and there remains a need for the development of national and international research collaborations to spearhead future efforts. © 2011 American Cancer Society, Inc. Source

Salzman N.H.,Medical College of Wisconsin
Current Opinion in Microbiology | Year: 2011

An estimated 100 trillion microbes colonize human beings, with the majority of organisms residing in the intestines. This microbiota impacts host nutrition, protection, and gut development. Alterations in microbiota composition are associated with susceptibility to various infectious and inflammatory gut diseases. The mucosal surface is not a static barrier that simply prevents microbial invasion but a critical interface for microbiota-immune system interactions. Recent work suggests that dynamic interactions between microbes and the host immune system at the mucosal surface inform immune responses both locally and systemically. This review focuses on intestinal microbiota-immune interactions leading to intestinal homeostasis, and show that these interactions at the GI mucosal surface are critical for driving both protective and pathological immune responses systemically. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Cooley B.C.,Medical College of Wisconsin
Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology | Year: 2011

Objective- Experimental studies of large-vessel thrombosis have been adapted for applications in mice, but they proffer limited quantifiable information in outcome measures. This study presents a novel approach for evaluating large-vessel thrombogenesis with temporally/spatially quantifiable measures and normalization methods for interanimal comparisons. Methods and Results- Shuttered, beam-expanded lasers provided uniform narrow-wavelength illumination of a ×100 microsurgical field with a large depth of focus. Thrombosis was generated in murine carotid arteries and femoral veins by brief vascular surface electrolytic injury. Thrombus-targeting fluorophores were injected systemically and subsequently localized at the site of thrombus induction. A low-light digital video camera with filter wheel provided target-specific image acquisition over a 60-minute interval. Platelets accumulated with a subsequent fibrin border emerging to stabilize the clot in both arteries and veins. Coagulation enzyme complexes colocalized with fibrin deposition. Large arteries underwent cyclic massive thromboembolization, whereas veins showed gradual shedding of microemboli and clot contraction. Systemic administration of fibrin- and platelet-inhibiting compounds reduced their respective targets but also often inhibited their clotting counterparts (platelets and fibrin, respectively) in both arteries and veins. Conclusion- Intermediate-level magnified image capture represents a novel approach for analysis of fluorescence-based in vivo imaging, with quantitative application to the study of large-vessel thrombosis. © 2011 American Heart Association, Inc. Source

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