Niigata-shi, Japan
Niigata-shi, Japan

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Oda E.,Medical Check up Center
Internal Medicine | Year: 2014

Objective: The serum albumin level has been reported to be positively associated with blood pressure in some cross-sectional studies. However, the longitudinal relationships between the serum albumin level and incident hypertension have been poorly studied. Methods: The incidence of hypertension was calculated for each quartile of serum albumin in 1,385 normotensive men and 855 normotensive women without cardiovascular disease at baseline who revisited for four years thereafter. The hazard ratios (HRs) of incident hypertension were calculated for each one SD increase in the serum albumin level and for the higher quartiles of serum albumin compared with the lowest quartile adjusted for smoking, alcohol drinking, body mass index, proteinuria, estimated glomerular filtration rate, uric acid, fasting glucose, log triglycerides, log high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, white blood cell count, hemoglobin, and systolic blood pressure. Results: During four years of follow-up (mean; 3.1 years), 242 men (17.5%) and 89 women (10.4%) developed hypertension. The incidence of hypertension significantly decreased through the quartiles of albumin (p for trend=0.012). The HR (95% confidence interval (CI); p value) of hypertension for each one SD increase in the serum albumin level was 0.779 (0.696-0.872; <0.001). Compared with the lowest quartile of serum albumin, the HRs (95% CIs; p values) of hypertension for the second, third and fourth quartiles were 0.765 (0.574-1.018; 0.066), 0.628 (0.440-0.895; 0.010) and 0.520 (0.364-0.742; <0.001), respectively. Conclusion: A decreased serum albumin level was found to be a significant predictor of hypertension in a Japanese health screening population. © 2014 The Japanese Society of Internal Medicine.


Oda E.,Medical Check up Center
International Journal of Urology | Year: 2014

Objectives: To investigate longitudinal relationships between obesity/inflammation and kidney stone formation in a population where obesity is not prevalent. Methods: Using Cox regression models, associations between kidney stone formation and body mass index, waist circumference, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and other possible risk factors were retrospectively examined in a health screening Japanese population including 1726 men and 992 women. Results: During 4 years of follow up (mean 3.2 years), kidney stones were formed in 238 men (34.5 per 1000 person-years) and 82women (20.7 per 1000 person-years). In men, when the possible risk factors were separately examined as continuous parameters, body mass index (P = 0.030) and waist circumference (P = 0.025) were significantly, and log C-reactive protein (P = 0.092) were marginally, associated with kidney stone formation. However, none of these parameters was independently associated with kidney stone formation after fully adjusted. In women, none of the aforementioned three parameters was associated with kidney stone formation. As a categorical parameter, the higher two quintiles of C-reactive protein were significantly associated with kidney stone formation compared with the lower two quintiles in men (P = 0.026). Conclusions: Overweight and C-reactive protein are weakly associated with kidney stone formation in Japanese men. Inflammation might be an underlying mechanism of the association between obesity and kidney stone formation. © 2014 The Japanese Urological Association.


Objective The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationships between serum cholinesterase and body weight change, in addition to incident obesity defined as a body mass index (BMI) of 25 kg/m2 or greater. Methods A retrospective 5-year follow-up study was conducted. The crude incidence and hazard ratios (HRs) of obesity adjusted for the BMI and other confounders were calculated for cholinesterase quartiles in 1,412 men and 921 women. Partial correlation coefficients (PCCs) were calculated between cholinesterase and changes in the BMI during the 5-year follow-up period adjusted for age and other confounders and the change in the BMI were compared among cholinesterase quartiles in 1,223 men and 681 women. Results During the 5-year follow-up period, 149 men (10.6%) and 65 women (7.1%) developed obesity. The adjusted HRs of obesity decreased, although the crude incidence of obesity increased along the quartiles of cholinesterase in men. The adjusted HRs of obesity for the first (lowest), second and third quartiles of cholinesterase were 2.02 (p=0.006), 1.45 (p=0.122), and 1.28 (p=0.265), respectively compared with the highest quartile in men. The PCC between the baseline level of cholinesterase and change in the BMI was -0.16 (p<0.001) in men. The mean changes in BMI for 5 years were 0.31 kg/m2, 0.17 kg/m2, 0.01 kg/m2 and -0.04 kg/m2, respectively in the first, second, third and fourth quartiles of cholinesterase in men (p=0.005). Neither incident obesity nor weight gain was significantly associated with cholinesterase in women. Conclusion The serum cholinesterase level was inversely associated with body weight change, as well as incident obesity, after adjusted for the BMI in men. © 2015 The Japanese Society of Internal Medicine.


Serum levels of uric acid (UA) are associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, no study has been aimed to investigate whether baseline UA is a predictor of MetS in a Japanese population. The multivariable adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of MetS through 3 years were calculated for each 1 SD increase in baseline UA, for the higher quartiles of baseline UA compared with the lowest quartile, and for baseline hyperuricemia defined as ≥7.0 mg/dl for men and ≥6.0 mg/dl for women in apparently healthy 1,606 men aged 51.7 ± 9.4 years and 953 women aged 51.6 ± 9.4 years who visited a medical check-up center in Japan. The HRs (95 % confidence interval; p value) were 1.282 (1.097-1.499; 0.002) in men and 1.354 (1.041-1.762; 0.024) in women for 1 SD increase in baseline UA, 2.206 (1.344-3.620; 0.002) in men and 3.110 (1.121-8.627; 0.029) in women for the highest quartile of baseline UA compared with the lowest quartile, and 1.900 (1.376-2.622; <0.001) in men and 2.088 (1.040-4.190; 0.038) in women for baseline hyperuricemia adjusting for the pre-existing components of MetS, age, smoking, drinking, physical activity, use of antihypertensive, antihyperlipidemic, and antidiabetic medications and histories of coronary heart disease and stroke. However, no significant association was found between longitudinal changes in UA and incident MetS. Baseline UA is an independent predictor of MetS in a Japanese health screening population. © 2013 Springer.


Objective: To investigate longitudinal associations between serum cholinesterase (ChE) and lipid status. Methods: Hazard ratios (HRs) of incident hyper-LDL cholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia and hypo-HDL cholesterolemia for baseline ChE and correlation coefficients between baseline ChE and changes in LDL cholesterol, log triglycerides and HDL cholesterol during 5 years were calculated in a health screening population. Results: During the 5-year follow-up period, 337 men (22.9%) and 208 women (26.3%), 330 men (24.3%) and 114 women (12.4%) and 137 men (8.3%) and 117 women (12.7%) developed hyper-LDL cholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia and hypo-HDL cholesterolemia, respectively. The HRs of incident hyper-LDL cholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia and hypo-HDL cholesterolemia for each 1 SD increase in baseline ChE were 1.15 (p=0.009) in men and 1.17 (p=0.017) in women, 1.25 (p<0.001) in men and 1.37 (p<0.001) in women and 1.15 (p=0.113) in men and 1.12 (p=0.248) in women, respectively adjusted for BMI and other confounders, while the HRs were not significant after further adjusted for each baseline lipid level except for the HR of hypertriglyceridemia in women (HR, 1.22 (p=0.047)). The baseline ChE was inversely correlated with the changes in LDL cholesterol (r=-0.117, p<0.001) and log triglycerides (r=-0.114, p<0.001) in men and the change in LDL cholesterol (r=-0.191, p<0.001) in women. Conclusion: ChE was positively associated with incident hyper-LDL cholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia adjusted for BMI, while with only incident hypertriglyceridemia in women after further adjusted for the baseline lipid level. © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Objective: To investigate cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between serum total bilirubin (TB) and LDL cholesterol. Methods: It is a retrospective observational study. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between TB and hyper-LDL cholesterolemia were investigated in a health screening population. Odds ratios (ORs) of coexisting hyper-LDL cholesterolemia for TB were calculated in 3,866 subjects, Spearman's correlation coefficients between baseline TB and LDL cholesterol at baseline and after 4 years were calculated in 1,735 subjects who did not use antihyperlipidemic drugs and hazard ratios (HRs) of incident hyper-LDL cholesterolemia for TB were calculated in 1,992 followed subjects. Results: The ORs (. p values) of coexisting hyper-LDL cholesterolemia for each 1 SD increase in TB was 1.04 (0.998) adjusted for sex, age, smoking, LDL cholesterol and other confounders. Spearman's correlation coefficients (. p values) between baseline TB and LDL cholesterol at baseline and after 4 years and changes in LDL cholesterol were-0.026 (0.271),-0.078 (0.001) and-0.062 (0.010), respectively. Among 1,992 followed subjects, 481 developed hyper-LDL cholesterolemia during 4 years (60.4 per 1,000 person-years). The HRs (95% confidence intervals; p values) of incident hyper-LDL cholesterolemia for each 1 SD increase in TB was 0.86 (0.77-0.96; 0.006) adjusted for sex, age, smoking, LDL cholesterol, body mass index, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, fasting glucose and other confounders. The quintiles of TB were significantly associated with the incident hyper-LDL cholesterolemia adjusted for the above covariates (. p for trend=0.008). Conclusion: A decrease in TB predicted incident hyper-LDL cholesterolemia in a health screening population. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Objective Both increased serum levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) are associated with obesity and have been established to be risk factors of cardiovascular disease. However, studies on the relationship between LDLC and MetS have been limited. Methods Cross-sectional (n=3,871) and longitudinal (n=2,558) associations between LDLC and MetS were examined in a Japanese health screening population. Results The odds ratio (OR) [95% confidence interval (CI)] of coexisting MetS for each one SD increase in the LDLC level was 1.25 [1.12-1.40] (p<0.001) adjusted for body mass index (BMI) and other confound- ing covariates and 1.12 [0.97-1.28] (p=0.119) adjusted for numerical values of the components of MetS and other confounding covariates. The similarly adjusted ORs [95% CIs] for the highest quartile of LDLC (Q4) compared with the lowest quartile (Q1) were 1.76 [1.22-2.54] (p=0.002) and 1.46 (0.93-2.30) (p=0.101), re- spectively. The hazard ratio (HR) [95% CI] for developing MetS for each one SD increase in the LDLC level was 1.24 [1.10-1.40] (p<0.001) adjusted for BMI and other confounding covariates and 1.19 [1.05-1.34] (p= 0.006) adjusted for the pre-existing dichotomous five components of MetS and other confounding covariates. The similarly adjusted HRs [95% CIs] for developing MetS for Q4 compared with Q1 were 1.71 [1.17-2.51] (p=0.006) and 1.61 [1.08-2.40] (p=0.020), respectively. Conclusion The LDLC level is associated with coexisting MetS and functions as a predictor of the devel- opment of MetS, independent of BMI or the pre-existing components of MetS, in a Japanese health screening population. © 2013 The Japanese Society of Internal Medicine.


To compare high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and white blood cell count (WBC) as a predictor of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Hazard ratios (HRs) adjusted for age, smoking, and other confounding covariates and areas under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUCs) of hs-CRP and WBC for developing MetS were calculated in 1,463 men and 920 women from a Japanese health screening population who were free from MetS, diabetes, histories of coronary heart disease, and stroke at baseline and followed through 3 years. The adjusted HRs (95% confidence interval - CI; p value) of MetS for each 1 SD increases in log hs-CRP, and log WBC were 1.345 (1.166-1.553; <0.001) and 1.406 (1.188-1.664; <0.001), respectively, in men and 1.388 (1.110-1.736; 0.004) and 1.358 (1.072-1.721; 0.011), respectively, in women. However, the HRs became nonsignificant after further adjusted for the components of MetS. The AUCs (95% CI; p value) of hs-CRP and WBC for predicting MetS were 0.616 (0.573-0.660; <0.001) and 0.613 (0.566-0.659; <0.001), respectively, in men and 0.636 (0.573-0.698; <0.001) and 0.606 (0.538-0.673; 0.003), respectively, in women. Hs-CRP and WBC equally predict development of MetS, but both are poor predictors of MetS in a Japanese health screening population where obesity is not prevailing. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Italia.


Oda E.,Medical Check up Center
Acta Diabetologica | Year: 2012

In late twentieth century, Ruderman and Reaven showed that insulin resistance might be fundamental to metabolic syndrome (MetS) which means a constellation of obesity-related metabolic derangements predisposing to type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. In 2001, user-friendly National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) criteria of MetS were proposed. In 2005, the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and the Examination Committee for Criteria of Metabolic Syndrome in Japan issued different criteria of MetS where abdominal obesity is a necessary component. In 2009, IDF, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, American Heart Association, World Heart Federation, International Atherosclerosis Society, and International Association for the Study of Obesity jointly adopted the revised NCEP criteria, where abdominal obesity is not a necessary component, as worldwide criteria of MetS. In 2010, WHO Expert Consultation warned that MetS is a concept that focuses attention on complex multifactorial health problems but has limited practical utility as a management tool. In animal studies, adipose tissue inflammation characterized by an increased number of crown-like structures in adipose tissue, rather than obesity per se, was shown to be a fundamental mechanism of metabolic derangements. © Springer-Verlag 2011.


Objective: To investigate cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between serum total bilirubin (TB) and dyslipidemia. Methods: Odds ratios (ORs) of prevalent dyslipidemia for TB were calculated in 2113 men and 1265 women. Correlation coefficients between baseline TB as well as the change in TB over 5 years and baseline log triglycerides, baseline HDL cholesterol and the changes in log triglycerides and HDL cholesterol over 5 years were calculated. Hazard ratios (HRs) of incident hypertriglyceridemia and hypo-HDL cholesterolemia for TB over 5 years were calculated in 1324 men and 915 women and 1583 men and 884 women, respectively. Results: The ORs of prevalent hypertriglyceridemia and hypo-HDL cholesterolemia for each one SD increase in TB were 0.83 (. p<0.001) in men and 0.71 (. p=0.074) in women and 0.64 (. p<0.001) in men and 0.78 (. p=0.089) in women, respectively adjusted for age, smoking, and other confounders. The baseline TB was significantly correlated with baseline log triglycerides and HDL cholesterol both in men and women while the change in TB was significantly correlated with the changes in log triglycerides and HDL cholesterol in men and the change in HDL cholesterol in women. The HRs of incident hypertriglyceridemia and hypo-HDL cholesterolemia for each one SD increase in TB were 0.99 (. p=0.848) in men and 0.74 (. p=0.033) in women and 1.08 (. p=0.345) in men and 0.85 (p=0.220) in women, respectively adjusted for age, smoking, and other confounders. Conclusion: Baseline TB was significantly associated with both prevalent hypertriglyceridemia and hypo-HDL cholesterolemia in men and with incident hypertriglyceridemia in women. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

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