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Feldkirch, Austria

Biller K.,Medical Central Laboratories | Fae P.,Clinic of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine | Germann R.,Clinic of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine | Drexel H.,Vorarlberg Institute for Vascular Investigation and Treatment VIVIT | And 2 more authors.
Shock | Year: 2014

Serum cholesterol procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were measured consecutively in 76 critically ill patients at admission to the intensive care unit. The presence of infection was defined according to the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) criteria; in-house mortality, underlying diseases, and severity of sepsis were monitored. Nonsurvivors had significantly lower cholesterol levels compared with survivors (69 mg/dL [range, 37-88 mg/dL] vs. 96 mg/dL [range, 71-132 mg/dL], P = 0.006) whereas no significant differences were noted for serum PCT and CRP levels. In a cohort of patients with cholesterol levels of 50 mg/dL or less, 82% did not survive as compared with patients with cholesterol levels of 100 mg/dL or greater (mortality, 21%). In a control group without infection, no difference of cholesterol, PCT, or CRP was found between survivors and nonsurvivors. Our data show that low cholesterol levels in patients with infectious disease have a prognostic value and may be useful markers to identify high-risk patients already at admission. Copyright © 2014 by the Shock Society. Source


Leiherer A.,Vorarlberg Institute for Vascular Investigation and Treatment VIVIT | Leiherer A.,University of Liechtenstein | Leiherer A.,Medical Central Laboratories | Geiger K.,Vorarlberg Institute for Vascular Investigation and Treatment VIVIT | And 6 more authors.
Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology | Year: 2014

To elucidate the complex impact of hypoxia on adipose tissue, resulting in biased metabolism, insulin resistance and finally diabetes we used mature adipocytes derived from a Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome patient for microarray analysis. We found a significantly increased transcription rate of genes involved in glycolysis and a striking association between the pattern of upregulated genes and disease biomarkers for diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance. Although their upregulation turned out to be HIF-1α-dependent, we identified further transcription factors mainly AP-1 components to play also an important role in hypoxia response. Analyzing the regulatory network of mentioned transcription factors and glycolysis targets we revealed a clear hint for directing glycolysis to glutathione and glycogen synthesis. This metabolic switch in adipocytes enables the cell to prevent oxidative damage in the short term but might induce lipogenesis and establish systemic metabolic disorders in the long run. © 2013 The Authors. Source


Saely C.H.,Academic Teaching Hospital Feldkirch | Saely C.H.,Vorarlberg Institute for Vascular Investigation and Treatment VIVIT | Saely C.H.,University of Liechtenstein | Leiherer A.,Vorarlberg Institute for Vascular Investigation and Treatment VIVIT | And 18 more authors.
Atherosclerosis | Year: 2016

Background and aims: No prospective data on the power of the adipocytokine omentin to predict cardiovascular events are available. We aimed at investigating i) the association of plasma omentin with cardiometabolic risk markers, ii) its association with angiographically determined coronary atherosclerosis, and iii) its power to predict cardiovascular events. Methods: We measured plasma omentin in 295 patients undergoing coronary angiography for the evaluation of established or suspected stable coronary artery disease (CAD), of whom 161 had significant CAD with coronary artery stenoses ≥50% and 134 did not have significant CAD. Results: Over 3.5 years, 17.6% of our patients suffered cardiovascular events, corresponding to an annual event rate of 5.0%. At baseline, plasma omentin was not significantly associated with metabolic syndrome stigmata and did not differ significantly between patients with and subjects without significant CAD (17.2 ± 13.6 ng/ml vs. 17.5 ± 15.1 ng/ml; p = 0.783). Prospectively, however, cardiovascular event risk significantly increased over tertiles of omentin (12.1%, 13.8%, and 29.5%, for tertiles 1 through 3; ptrend = 0.003), and omentin as a continuous variable significantly predicted cardiovascular events after adjustment for age, gender, BMI, diabetes, hypertension, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and smoking (standardized adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1.41 [95% CI 1.16-1.72]; p < 0.001), as well as after additional adjustment for the presence and extent of significant CAD at baseline (HR 1.59 [95% CI 1.29-1.97, p < 0.001). Conclusion: From this first prospective evaluation of the cardiovascular risk associated with omentin we conclude that elevated plasma omentin significantly predicts cardiovascular events independently from the presence and extent of angiographically determined baseline CAD. © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source


Leiherer A.,Vorarlberg Institute for Vascular Investigation and Treatment VIVIT | Leiherer A.,University of Liechtenstein | Leiherer A.,Medical Central Laboratories | Mundlein A.,Vorarlberg Institute for Vascular Investigation and Treatment VIVIT | And 4 more authors.
Vascular Pharmacology | Year: 2013

Type 2 diabetes mellitus is an inflammatory disease and the mechanisms that underlie this disease, although still incompletely understood, take place in the adipose tissue of obese subjects. Concurrently, the prevalence of obesity caused by Western diet's excessive energy intake and the lack of exercise escalates, and is believed to be causative for the chronic inflammatory state in adipose tissue. Overnutrition itself as an overload of energy may induce the adipocytes to secrete chemokines activating and attracting immune cells to adipose tissue. But also inflammation-mediating food ingredients like saturated fatty acids are believed to directly initiate the inflammatory cascade. In addition, hypoxia in adipose tissue as a direct consequence of obesity, and its effect on gene expression in adipocytes and surrounding cells in fat tissue of obese subjects appears to play a central role in this inflammatory response too.In contrast, revisiting diet all over the world, there are also some natural food products and beverages which are associated with curative effects on human health. Several natural compounds known as spices such as curcumin, capsaicin, and gingerol, or secondary plant metabolites catechin, resveratrol, genistein, and quercetin have been reported to provide an improved health status to their consumers, especially with regard to diabetes, and therefore have been investigated for their anti-inflammatory effect. In this review, we will give an overview about these phytochemicals and their role to interfere with inflammatory cascades in adipose tissue and their potential for fighting against inflammatory diseases like diabetes as investigated in vivo. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. Source


Muendlein A.,Vorarlberg Institute for Vascular Investigation and Treatment VIVIT | Saely C.H.,Vorarlberg Institute for Vascular Investigation and Treatment VIVIT | Saely C.H.,University of Liechtenstein | Leiherer A.,Vorarlberg Institute for Vascular Investigation and Treatment VIVIT | And 12 more authors.
Atherosclerosis | Year: 2014

Background: Angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) has been associated with cardiometabolic disorders including dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis in animal studies; in humans, however, its impact on metabolic traits and cardiovascular risk remains unclear. Methods: We examined the association of plasma ANGPTL4 levels with the metabolic syndrome (harmonized consensus definition), with angiographically determined coronary artery disease (CAD), and with the risk of future cardiovascular events in a cohort of 490 patients undergoing coronary angiography for the evaluation of stable CAD. In addition, we investigated the influence of the tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs4076317, rs2278236, rs1044250, and rs11672433 as well as variant rs116843064 (E40K) of the ANGPTL4 gene on cardiovascular risk in a larger sample of 983 angiographied coronary patients including the above mentioned 490 subjects. Results: Plasma ANGPTL4 was significantly higher in patients with the metabolic syndrome than in subjects without the metabolic syndrome (26.0±19.4ng/ml vs. 22.2±19.7ng/ml; p=0.008). No significant association was found between ANGPTL4 and angiographically characterized coronary atherosclerosis. Prospectively, however, plasma ANGPTL4 significantly predicted future cardiovascular events both univariately (HR1.45 [1.16-1.82], p=0.001) and after adjustment for standard cardiovascular risk factors (1.26 [1.01-1.58]; p=0.045). Concordantly, rs4076317, rs2278236, and rs1044250 significantly affected the risk of future cardiovascular events (adjusted HRs 0.70 [0.54-0.90]; p=0.005, 0.76 [0.61-0.94]; p=0.012, and 1.30 [1.03-1.62]; p=0.025, respectively). Conclusions: We conclude that plasma ANGPTL4 levels as well as ANGPTL4 variants significantly predict cardiovascular events independently of conventional cardiovascular risk factors. 2014 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source

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