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Gomez-Santos L.,Research Center Biomedica En Red Of Enfermedades Hepaticas gestivas Ciberedh | Luka Z.,Vanderbilt University | Wagner C.,Vanderbilt University | Wagner C.,Medical Affairs Medical Center | And 5 more authors.
Hepatology | Year: 2012

Glycine N-methyltransferase (GNMT) catabolizes S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), the main methyl donor of the body. Patients with cirrhosis show attenuated GNMT expression, which is absent in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) samples. GNMT -/- mice develop spontaneous steatosis that progresses to steatohepatitis, cirrhosis, and HCC. The liver is highly enriched with innate immune cells and plays a key role in the body's host defense and in the regulation of inflammation. Chronic inflammation is the major hallmark of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) progression. The aim of our study was to uncover the molecular mechanisms leading to liver chronic inflammation in the absence of GNMT, focusing on the implication of natural killer (NK)/natural killer T (NKT) cells. We found increased expression of T helper (Th)1- over Th2-related cytokines, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-R2/DR5, and several ligands of NK cells in GNMT -/- livers. Interestingly, NK cells from GNMT -/- mice were spontaneously activated, expressed more TRAIL, and had strong cytotoxic activity, suggesting their contribution to the proinflammatory environment in the liver. Accordingly, NK cells mediated hypersensitivity to concanavalin A (ConA)-mediated hepatitis in GNMT -/- mice. Moreover, GNMT -/- mice were hypersensitive to endotoxin-mediated liver injury. NK cell depletion and adoptive transfer of TRAIL -/- liver-NK cells protected the liver against lipopolysaccharide (LPS) liver damage. Conclusion: Our data allow us to conclude that TRAIL-producing NK cells actively contribute to promote a proinflammatory environment at early stages of fatty liver disease, suggesting that this cell compartment may contribute to the progression of NASH. © 2012 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases. Source


Barr J.,OWL Genomics | Barr J.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Barr J.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Vazquez-Chantada M.,Research Center Biomedica En Red Of Enfermedades Hepaticas gestivas | And 22 more authors.
Journal of Proteome Research | Year: 2010

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common form of chronic liver disease in most western countries. Current NAFLD diagnosis methods (e.g., liver biopsy analysis or imaging techniques) are poorly suited as tests for such a prevalent condition, from both a clinical and financial point of view. The present work aims to demonstrate the potential utility of serum metabolic profiling in defining phenotypic biomarkers that could be useful in NAFLD management. A parallel animal model/human NAFLD exploratory metabolomics approach was employed, using ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) to analyze 42 serum samples collected from nondiabetic, morbidly obese, biopsy-proven NAFLD patients, and 17 animals belonging to the glycine N-methyltransferase knockout (GNMT-KO) NAFLD mouse model. Multivariate statistical analysis of the data revealed a series of common biomarkers that were significantly altered in the NAFLD (GNMT-KO) subjects in comparison to their normal liver counterparts (WT). Many of the compounds observed could be associated with biochemical perturbations associated with liver dysfunction (e.g., reduced Creatine) and inflammation (e.g., eicosanoid signaling). This differential metabolic phenotyping approach may have a future role as a supplement for clinical decision making in NAFLD and in the adaption to more individualized treatment protocols. © 2010 American Chemical Society. Source


Vazquez-Chantada M.,Centro Of Investigacion Cooperativa En Biociencias Cic Biogune | Fernandez-Ramos D.,Centro Of Investigacion Cooperativa En Biociencias Cic Biogune | Embade N.,Centro Of Investigacion Cooperativa En Biociencias Cic Biogune | Martinez-Lopez N.,Centro Of Investigacion Cooperativa En Biociencias Cic Biogune | And 13 more authors.
Gastroenterology | Year: 2010

Background & Aims: Hepatic de-differentiation, liver development, and malignant transformation are processes in which the levels of hepatic S-adenosylmethionine are tightly regulated by 2 genes: methionine adenosyltransferase 1A (MAT1A) and methionine adenosyltransferase 2A (MAT2A). MAT1A is expressed in the adult liver, whereas MAT2A expression primarily is extrahepatic and is associated strongly with liver proliferation. The mechanisms that regulate these expression patterns are not completely understood. Methods: In silico analysis of the 3′ untranslated region of MAT1A and MAT2A revealed putative binding sites for the RNA-binding proteins AU-rich RNA binding factor 1 (AUF1) and HuR, respectively. We investigated the posttranscriptional regulation of MAT1A and MAT2A by AUF1, HuR, and methyl-HuR in the aforementioned biological processes. Results: During hepatic de-differentiation, the switch between MAT1A and MAT2A coincided with an increase in HuR and AUF1 expression. S-adenosylmethionine treatment altered this homeostasis by shifting the balance of AUF1 and methyl-HuR/HuR, which was identified as an inhibitor of MAT2A messenger RNA (mRNA) stability. We also observed a similar temporal distribution and a functional link between HuR, methyl-HuR, AUF1, and MAT1A and MAT2A during fetal liver development. Immunofluorescent analysis revealed increased levels of HuR and AUF1, and a decrease in methyl-HuR levels in human livers with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Conclusions: Our data strongly support a role for AUF1 and HuR/methyl-HuR in liver de-differentiation, development, and human HCC progression through the posttranslational regulation of MAT1A and MAT2A mRNAs. © 2010 AGA Institute. Source

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