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Estrada-Aguirre J.A.,Autonomous University of Sinaloa | Osuna-Ramirez I.,Autonomous University of Sinaloa | Prado Montes de Oca E.,Medical and Pharmaceutical Biotechnology Unit | Ramirez M.,Hospital General Of Culiacan Dr Bernardo J Gastelum | And 5 more authors.
Current HIV Research | Year: 2014

Immunologic and genetic factors are involved in HIV-1/AIDS pathogenesis. Defensins are key molecules in innate immunity that participate in the control and/or development of infection and disease. Using PCR-RFLPs, we determined the association between HIV-1/AIDS and human β-defensin 1 (DEFB1) 5'UTR -52 G/A (rs1799946), -44 C/G (rs1800972), and -20 G/A (rs11362) polymorphisms in three groups of women from the state of Sinaloa, located in the Northwest region of Mexico: i) healthy blood donors; ii) sex-workers; and iii) HIV-1 patients. The -52GG genotype was more frequent in blood donors than in patients (p= 0.023; Odds Ratio, OR= 0.49; 95% CI= 0.25-0.95), whereas the -52GA genotype was significantly higher in patients (p= 0.013; OR= 2.03; 95% CI= 1.11-3.79, statistical power SP= 98.8%), as well as the frequencies of -20A allele (p= 0.017; OR= 1.60; 95% CI= 1.06-2.40), -20AA genotype (p= 0.047; OR = 2.02; 95% CI= 0.93-4.33) and the ACA haplotype with respect to healthy blood donors (p= 0.000012; OR= 5.82; 95% CI= 2.33-16.43, SP= 99.89%) and sex-workers (p= 0.019; OR= 2.18; 95% CI= 1.07-4.46). Conversely, the ACG haplotype was higher in healthy blood donors than in patients (p= 0.009; OR= 0.55; 95% CI= 0.34-0.89). In addition, the -44CC genotype was associated with a low plasma viral load (p= 0.015), whereas AGA, AGG and GGA haplotypes were more prevalent in individuals with high CD4 counts (p= 0.004, 0.046, and 0.029, respectively). These findings associate DEFB1 5'UTR polymorphisms with HIV-1/AIDS in Mexican women for the first time. © 2014 Bentham Science Publishers.


Adorka M.,University of Namibia | Dikokole M.,National University of Lesotho | Mitonga K.H.,University of Namibia | Allen K.,Medical and Pharmaceutical Biotechnology Unit
African Health Sciences | Year: 2013

Background: The decision to prescribe antibiotics and the selection of an appropriate antibiotic are important in the treatment of infectious diseases. As any human decision, it can be influenced by individual attitudes and perceptions. Objectives: To assess the attitudes and perceptions of healthcare providers regarding antibiotic prescribing and the use of laboratory results in infection diagnosis. Methods: A cross sectional survey in five selected Health Service Areas (HSAs) in the Southern Africa country of Lesotho. The questionnaires were self-administered to 67 healthcare providers in public health institutions within the selected HSAs. Data were analyzed using Fisher's exact test or the McNemar Test for dependent proportions. Results: 51 surveys were returned (39 medical doctors, 12 nurses). Respondents typically practiced in urban settings, worked with both inpatients and outpatients, had over 10 years experience, and attended to at least 26 patients per day. We identify several inappropriate practices related to the use of on-site microbiology laboratories. For example, only 17% always send a sample for microscopic identification prior to prescribing antibiotics and only 32% always send a sample for culture sensitivity tests. Delays in obtaining laboratory results and high patient workloads were cited as reasons for under-utilization of laboratory facilities. Nearly all respondents recognize the need for guidelines and further training in antibiotic prescribing. Conclusions: Healthcare providers demonstrated attitudes and perceptions in antibiotic prescribing or use of laboratory derived information in infection diagnosis that could have negative impacts on antibiotic prescribing.


Pedroza-Roldan C.,University of Guadalajara | Paez-Magallan V.,University of Guadalajara | Charles-Nino C.,University of Guadalajara | Elizondo-Quiroga D.,Medical and Pharmaceutical Biotechnology Unit | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation | Year: 2015

Canine parvovirus (CPV) is one of the most common infectious agents related to high morbidity rates in dogs. In addition, the virus is associated with severe gastroenteritis, diarrhea, and vomiting, resulting in high death rates, especially in puppies and nonvaccinated dogs. To date, there are 3 variants of the virus (CPV-2a, CPV-2b, and CPV-2c) circulating worldwide. In Mexico, reports describing the viral variants circulating in dog populations are lacking. In response to this deficiency, a total of 41 fecal samples of suspected dogs were collected from October 2013 through April 2014 in the Veterinary Hospital of the University of Guadalajara in western Mexico. From these, 24 samples resulted positive by polymerase chain reaction, and the viral variant was determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism. Five positive diagnosed samples were selected for partial sequencing of the vp2 gene and codon analysis. The results demonstrated that the current dominant viral variant in Mexico is CPV-2c. The current study describes the genotyping of CPV strains, providing valuable evidence of the dominant frequency of this virus in a dog population from western Mexico. © 2014 The Author(s).


Ramirez-Cordova J.,Medical and Pharmaceutical Biotechnology Unit | Drnevich J.,Urbana University | Madrigal-Pulido J.A.,Medical and Pharmaceutical Biotechnology Unit | Arrizon J.,Industrial Biotechnology Unit | And 3 more authors.
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, International Journal of General and Molecular Microbiology | Year: 2012

During ethanol fermentation, yeast cells are exposed to stress due to the accumulation of ethanol, cell growth is altered and the output of the target product is reduced. For Agave beverages, like tequila, no reports have been published on the global gene expression under ethanol stress. In this work, we used microarray analysis to identify Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes involved in the ethanol response. Gene expression of a tequila yeast strain of S. cerevisiae (AR5) was explored by comparing global gene expression with that of laboratory strain S288C, both after ethanol exposure. Additionally, we used two different culture conditions, cells grown in Agave tequilana juice as a natural fermentation media or grown in yeast-extract peptone dextrose as artificial media. Of the 6368 S. cerevisiae genes in the microarray, 657 genes were identified that had different expression responses to ethanol stress due to strain and/or media. A cluster of 28 genes was found overexpressed specifically in the AR5 tequila strain that could be involved in the adaptation to tequila yeast fermentation, 14 of which are unknown such as yor343 c, ylr162 w, ygr182 c, ymr265 c, yer053 c-A or ydr415c. These could be the most suitable genes for transforming tequila yeast to increase ethanol tolerance in the tequila fermentation process. Other genes involved in response to stress (RFC4, TSA1, MLH1, PAU3, RAD53) or transport (CYB2, TIP20, QCR9) were expressed in the same cluster. Unknown genes could be good candidates for the development of recombinant yeasts with ethanol tolerance for use in industrial tequila fermentation. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012.


PubMed | Medical and Pharmaceutical Biotechnology Unit
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Antonie van Leeuwenhoek | Year: 2012

During ethanol fermentation, yeast cells are exposed to stress due to the accumulation of ethanol, cell growth is altered and the output of the target product is reduced. For Agave beverages, like tequila, no reports have been published on the global gene expression under ethanol stress. In this work, we used microarray analysis to identify Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes involved in the ethanol response. Gene expression of a tequila yeast strain of S. cerevisiae (AR5) was explored by comparing global gene expression with that of laboratory strain S288C, both after ethanol exposure. Additionally, we used two different culture conditions, cells grown in Agave tequilana juice as a natural fermentation media or grown in yeast-extract peptone dextrose as artificial media. Of the 6368 S. cerevisiae genes in the microarray, 657 genes were identified that had different expression responses to ethanol stress due to strain and/or media. A cluster of 28 genes was found over-expressed specifically in the AR5 tequila strain that could be involved in the adaptation to tequila yeast fermentation, 14 of which are unknown such as yor343c, ylr162w, ygr182c, ymr265c, yer053c-a or ydr415c. These could be the most suitable genes for transforming tequila yeast to increase ethanol tolerance in the tequila fermentation process. Other genes involved in response to stress (RFC4, TSA1, MLH1, PAU3, RAD53) or transport (CYB2, TIP20, QCR9) were expressed in the same cluster. Unknown genes could be good candidates for the development of recombinant yeasts with ethanol tolerance for use in industrial tequila fermentation.

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