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Jung J.I.,Hallym University | Cho H.J.,Hallym University | Kim J.,Medical and Bio material Research Center | Kim J.,Kangwon National University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Medicinal Food | Year: 2010

Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a mixture of positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid; the major isomers are trans-10,cis-12 CLA (t10c12) and cis-9,trans-11 CLA (c9t11). CLA has been demonstrated to exert strong anticarcinogenic effects in a variety of experimental cancer models. We previously observed that CLA (a mixture of isomers) and t10c12 decreased the growth of TSU-Pr1cells, whereas linoleic acid and c9t11 exerted no effects. In the current study, the mechanisms underlying the t10c12-mediated regulation of the growth of these bladder cancer cells were evaluated. TSU-Pr1 cells were incubated in serum-free medium with various concentrations of t10c12 or c9t11 in the presence or absence of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I. The incorporation of [3H]thymidine into DNA was decreased, and the number of annexin V-stained cells was increased after t10c12 treatment, whereas c9t11 had no effect on apoptosis or [3H]thymidine incorporation. Treatment with exogenous IGF-I alone increased the numbers of viable cells but did not counteract the t10c12-induced growth inhibition of TSU-Pr1 cells. t10c12 effected a dose-dependent reduction in IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) transcripts and protein levels, whereas c9t11 exerted no effects. Additionally, t10c12 inhibited the IGF-I-induced phosphorylation of IGF-IR, the recruitment of the p85 regulatory subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase to IGF-IR, and the phosphorylation of Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-1/2. These results indicate that the inhibition of IGF-IR signaling and the activation of Akt and ERK-1/2 contributed to decreased cell proliferation and increased apoptosis in TSU-Pr1 cells treated with t10c12. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. and Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition 2010.

Park J.-A.,Medical and Bio Material Research Center | Kim A.-J.,Medical and Bio Material Research Center | Kang Y.,Chosun University | Jung Y.-J.,Medical and Bio Material Research Center | And 2 more authors.
Molecules and Cells | Year: 2011

Interphasic chromatin condenses into the chromosomes in order to facilitate the correct segregation of genetic information. It has been previously reported that the phosphorylation and methylation of the N-terminal tail of histone H3 are responsible for chromosome condensation. In this study, we demonstrate that the deacetylation and methylation of histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) are required for proper chromosome condensation. We confirmed that H3K9ac levels were reduced, whereas H3K9me3 levels were increased in mitotic cells, via immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis. Nocodazole treatment induced G2/M arrest but co-treatment with TSA, an HDAC inhibitor, delayed cell cycle progression. However, the HMTase inhibitor, AdoX, had no effect on nocodazole-induced G2/M arrest, thereby indicating that sequential modifications of H3K9 are required for proper chromosome condensation. The expression of SUV39H1 and SETDB1, H3K9me3-responsible HMTases, are specifically increased along with H3K9me3 in nocodazole-arrested buoyant cells, which suggests that the increased expression of those proteins is an important step in chromosome condensation. H3K9me3 was highly concentrated in the vertical chromosomal axis during prophase and prometaphase. Collectively, the results of this study indicate that sequential modifications at H3K9 are associated with correct chromosome condensation, and that H3K9me3 may be relevant to the condensation of chromosome length.

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