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Kfar Malal, Israel

Mehrpour O.,Birjand University | Mehrpour O.,Medial Research | Karrari P.,Birjand University | Zamani N.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences | And 2 more authors.
Toxicology Letters | Year: 2014

Exposure to pesticides affects many body organs including reproductive system. Disorder of the reproductive system leads to infertility and therefore has been in the center of attention within the recent decades. Pesticides are one of the compounds that might reduce the semen quality in the exposed workers according to current knowledge. Although many underlying mechanisms have been proposed, the mechanisms of action are not clarified yet. The object of the present review was to criticize all the results of studies which evaluated the pesticide effects on male reproductive system. Results indicate that semen changes are multifactorial in the workers exposed to pesticides as there are numerous factors affecting sperm quality in occupational exposures. Majority of pesticides including organophosphoruses affect the male reproductive system by mechanisms such as reduction of sperm density and motility, inhibition of spermatogenesis, reduction of testis weights, reduction of sperm counts, motility, viability and density, and inducing sperm DNA damage, and increasing abnormal sperm morphology. Reduced weight of testes, epididymis, seminal vesicle, and ventral prostate, seminiferous tubule degeneration, change in plasma levels of testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH), decreased level and activity of the antioxidant enzymes in testes, and inhibited testicular steroidogenesis are other possible mechanisms. Moreover, DDT and its metabolites have estrogenic effects on males. Although effect of pesticides on sperm quality is undeniable, well-designed long-term studies are needed to elucidate all the possible affecting variables such as socioeconomic, cultural, nutritional, occupational, physical, and clinical characteristics alongside pesticides. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source

Hamel M.J.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Obor D.,KEMRI CDC Research Station | Sewe M.,KEMRI CDC Research Station | Vulule J.,Medial Research | And 4 more authors.
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2011

We report and explore changes in child mortality in a rural area of Kenya during 2003-2009, when major public health interventions were scaled-up. Mortality ratios and rates were calculated by using the Kenya Medical Research Institute/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Demographic Surveillance System. Inpatient and outpatient morbidity and mortality, and verbal autopsy data were analyzed. Mortality ratios for children less than five years of age decreased from 241 to 137 deaths/1,000 live-births in 2003 and 2007 respectively. In 2008, they increased to 212 deaths/1,000 live-births. Mortality remained elevated during the first 8 months of 2009 compared with 2006 and 2007. Malaria and/or anemia accounted for the greatest increases in child mortality. Stock-outs of essential antimalarial drugs during a time of increased malaria transmission and disruption of services during civil unrest may have contributed to increased mortality in 2008-2009. To maintain gains in child survival, implementation of good policies and effective interventions must be complemented by reliable supply and access to clinical services and essential drugs. Copyright © 2011 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Source

Yakob L.,University of Queensland | Williams G.M.,University of Queensland | Gray D.J.,University of Queensland | Gray D.J.,Medial Research | And 3 more authors.
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2013

Background: Animal and human infection with multiple parasite species is the norm rather than the exception, and empirical studies and animal models have provided evidence for a diverse range of interactions among parasites. We demonstrate how an optimal control strategy should be tailored to the pathogen community and tempered by species-level knowledge of drug sensitivity with use of a simple epidemiological model of gastro-intestinal nematodes. Methods. We construct a fully mechanistic model of macroparasite co-infection and use it to explore a range of control scenarios involving chemotherapy as well as improvements to sanitation. Results: Scenarios are presented whereby control not only releases a more resistant parasite from antagonistic interactions, but risks increasing co-infection rates, exacerbating the burden of disease. In contrast, synergisms between species result in their becoming epidemiologically slaved within hosts, presenting a novel opportunity for controlling drug resistant parasites by targeting co-circulating species. Conclusions: Understanding the effects on control of multi-parasite species interactions, and vice versa, is of increasing urgency in the advent of integrated mass intervention programmes. © 2013 Yakob et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Gill A.J.,Royal North Shore Hospital | Gill A.J.,Medial Research | Gill A.J.,University of Sydney
Endocrine Pathology | Year: 2014

Parathyroid carcinoma has always been difficult to diagnose pathologically. In fact, most parathyroid tumors which are classified as carcinoma do not recur after excision, and most parathyroid tumors which actually metastasize or recur repeatedly in the neck are not recognized as malignant at first presentation. In 2002, germline HRPT2 (also known as CDC73) mutation was reported as the cause of hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor (HPT-JT) syndrome, an autosomal dominant hereditary tumor syndrome associated with a lifetime risk of parathyroid carcinoma approaching 15 %. Subsequently, bi-allelic inactivation or mutation of HRPT2 has been reported in the majority of parathyroid carcinomas that actually behave in a malignant manner but very rarely in sporadic benign parathyroid disease. Furthermore, germline testing for HRPT2 mutation in patients presenting with parathyroid carcinoma often identifies occult HPT-JT syndrome even in the absence of a family history or other syndromic manifestations. HRPT2 mutation testing is not readily available, and loss of expression of parafibromin (the protein encoded by HRPT2) as determined by immunohistochemistry has been used as a surrogate marker of HRPT2 mutation. Immunohistochemistry for parafibromin can be technically difficult and has been deployed by different investigators with variable enthusiasm and success. However, proponents have found immunohistochemistry for parafibromin useful to definitively confirm a pathological diagnosis of parathyroid carcinoma, predict a worse outcome in definite parathyroid carcinomas, triage formal genetic testing for HPT-JT syndrome, and predict the outcome of histologically atypical parathyroid adenomas. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media. Source

Satyanarayana K.,Medial Research
Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology | Year: 2010

This paper traces the evolution of measures and parameters for the evaluation of science and scientific journals from the first attempts during the early part of the last century to the development of the most popular, current and widely used metrics viz., citations, impact factor (IF) etc. The identification of measures of evaluation in science and scientific reporting paralled the post-war increase in funding in the United States of America. Biomedical and medical sciences continue to garner a major share, estimated to be almost two-thirds of total research and development funding of over US$ 350 billion. There has been a concomitant growth in the publications in learned journals. About 1.4 million papers are published every year in an estimated 20,000 journals. In India there are an estimated 100 journals in medical sciences. With a steady increase of about 10% every year, the competition for grants, awards, rewards etc., is fierce. This unrelenting increase in number of scientists and the resultant competition, the limitation of peer review was felt. A search was on for new quantifiable measures for informed decision making for funding, awards, rewards, etc. Now virtually all major decisions all over the world are based on some data linked to publications and/or citations. The concept of citations as tool for 'evaluating' science was first proposed by Eugene Garfield in 1955. The availability of Science Citation Index (SCI), Journal Citation Reports (JCR), Web of Science etc. and the relative ease with which they could be used (and abused) has spawned an entirely new area bibliometrics/scientometrics. As only a limited number of journals could be included in the Thomson Reuters (TR) databases (currently numbering about 10500), analyses based on such a limited dataset (also selected in a non-transparent way by the TR) has been widely and severely criticized by both the developed and developing countries. Yet, studies have shown that citation-based data and indicators (warts and all) could still be put to productive use for purposes of evaluation (as scientists just love numbers). There were simultaneous efforts to find alternative indicators using the TR databases, and through other innovative methods. Some of these include Google Scholar, PageRank, H-index, Y-factor, Faculty of 1000, Eigen Factor etc. The advantages and limitations of these indices are discussed. There is a need for a more critical look at these parameters from the Indian perspective to compute/ device/adapt these measures to suit our needs. There are 205 journals under the category Physiology and 201 in the Pharmacology category listed in the JCR. There are four major Indian journals under the category of Physiology and Pharmacology and none of them are listed in the TR databases reflecting the limitation of these databases. Eventually, and in the long run, the quality of our journals needs to be improved as the current era of globalization and web-access provides both a challenge and an opportunity for the science and scientific journals published from India to get increased global visibility. Source

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