Medeia Therapeutics Ltd.

Kuopio, Finland

Medeia Therapeutics Ltd.

Kuopio, Finland
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Pihlaja R.,University of Eastern Finland | Koistinaho J.,University of Eastern Finland | Koistinaho J.,Kuopio University Hospital | Kauppinen R.,University of Eastern Finland | And 5 more authors.
GLIA | Year: 2011

Astrocytes and microglia are able to degrade potentially neurotoxic β-amyloid (Aβ) deposits typical for Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. Contrary to microglia, astrocytes degrade human Aβ from tissue sections in vitro without any additional stimulation, but it has remained unclear whether transplanted astrocytes are able to clear deposited human Aβ in vivo. We transplanted adult mouse astrocytes into the hippocampi of transgenic mice mimicking AD and observed their fate, effects on microglial responses, and Aβ clearance. After 2-months follow-up time, we discovered a significant reduction in Aβ burden compared with AD mice infused with PBS only. The remaining Aβ deposits were fragmented and most of the Aβ immunoreactivity was seen within the transplanted astrocytes. Concomitant to Aβ reduction, both CD68 and CD45 immunoreactivities were significantly upregulated but phagocytic microglia were often surrounding and engulfing Aβ burdened, TUNEL-positive astrocytes rather than co-localizing with Aβ alone. Astrocytes are known to degrade Aβ also by secreting proteases involved in Aβ catabolism. To study the contribution of neprilysin (NEP), angiotensin-converting enzyme-1 (ACE-1), and endothelin-converting enzyme-2 (ECE-2) in human Aβ clearance, we utilized an ex vivo assay to demonstrate that adult astrocytes respond to human Aβ by upregulating NEP expression. Further, incubation of adult astrocytes with known inhibitors of NEP, ACE-1, or ECE-2 significantly inhibited the removal of human Aβ from the tissue suggesting an important role for these proteases in Aβ clearance by adult astrocytes ex vivo. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.


Magga J.,University of Eastern Finland | Puli L.,University of Eastern Finland | Pihlaja R.,University of Eastern Finland | Kanninen K.,University of Eastern Finland | And 11 more authors.
Journal of Neuroinflammation | Year: 2010

Background: Purified intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) obtained from the plasma of healthy humans is indicated for the treatment of primary immunodeficiency disorders associated with defects in humoral immunity. IVIG contains naturally occurring auto-antibodies, including antibodies (Abs) against β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides accumulating in the brains of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. IVIG has been shown to alleviate AD pathology when studied with mildly affected AD patients. Although its mechanisms-of-action have been broadly studied, it remains unresolved how IVIG affects the removal of natively formed brain Aβ deposits by primary astrocytes and microglia, two major cell types involved in the neuroinflammatory responses.Methods: We first determined the effect of IVIG on Aβ toxicity in primary neuronal cell culture. The mechanisms-of-action of IVIG in reduction of Aβ burden was analyzed with ex vivo assay. We studied whether IVIG solubilizes natively formed Aβ deposits from brain sections of APP/PS1 mice or promotes Aβ removal by primary glial cells. We determined the role of lysosomal degradation pathway and Aβ Abs in the IVIG-promoted reduction of Aβ. Finally, we studied the penetration of IVIG into the brain parenchyma and interaction with brain deposits of human Aβ in a mouse model of AD in vivo.Results: IVIG was protective against Aβ toxicity in a primary mouse hippocampal neuron culture. IVIG modestly inhibited the fibrillization of synthetic Aβ1-42 but did not solubilize natively formed brain Aβ deposits ex vivo. IVIG enhanced microglia-mediated Aβ clearance ex vivo, with a mechanism linked to Aβ Abs and lysosomal degradation. The IVIG-enhanced Aβ clearance appears specific for microglia since IVIG did not affect Aβ clearance by astrocytes. The cellular mechanisms of Aβ clearance we observed have potential relevance in vivo since after peripheral administration IVIG penetrated to mouse brain tissue reaching highest concentrations in the hippocampus and bound selectively to Aβ deposits in co-localization with microglia.Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that IVIG promotes recognition and removal of natively formed brain Aβ deposits by primary microglia involving natural Aβ Abs in IVIG. These findings may have therapeutic relevance in vivo as IVIG penetrates through the blood-brain barrier and specifically binds to Aβ deposits in brain parenchyma. © 2010 Magga et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Pollari E.,University of Eastern Finland | Savchenko E.,University of Eastern Finland | Jaronen M.,University of Eastern Finland | Kanninen K.,University of Eastern Finland | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Neuroinflammation | Year: 2011

Background: Granulocyte colony stimulating factor (GCSF) is protective in animal models of various neurodegenerative diseases. We investigated whether pegfilgrastim, GCSF with sustained action, is protective in a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). ALS is a fatal neurodegenerative disease with manifestations of upper and lower motoneuron death and muscle atrophy accompanied by inflammation in the CNS and periphery.Methods: Human mutant G93A superoxide dismutase (SOD1) ALS mice were treated with pegfilgrastim starting at the presymptomatic stage and continued until the end stage. After long-term pegfilgrastim treatment, the inflammation status was defined in the spinal cord and peripheral tissues including hematopoietic organs and muscle. The effect of GCSF on spinal cord neuron survival and microglia, bone marrow and spleen monocyte activation was assessed in vitro.Results: Long-term pegfilgrastim treatment prolonged mutant SOD1 mice survival and attenuated both astro- and microgliosis in the spinal cord. Pegfilgrastim in SOD1 mice modulated the inflammatory cell populations in the bone marrow and spleen and reduced the production of pro-inflammatory cytokine in monocytes and microglia. The mobilization of hematopoietic stem cells into the circulation was restored back to basal level after long-term pegfilgrastim treatment in SOD1 mice while the storage of Ly6C expressing monocytes in the bone marrow and spleen remained elevated. After pegfilgrastim treatment, an increased proportion of these cells in the degenerative muscle was detected at the end stage of ALS.Conclusions: GCSF attenuated inflammation in the CNS and the periphery in a mouse model of ALS and thereby delayed the progression of the disease. This mechanism of action targeting inflammation provides a new perspective of the usage of GCSF in the treatment of ALS. © 2011 Pollari et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Malm T.,University of Eastern Finland | Koistinaho M.,University of Eastern Finland | Koistinaho M.,Medeia Therapeutics Ltd. | Muona A.,University of Eastern Finland | And 4 more authors.
GLIA | Year: 2010

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a dementing neurodegenerative disorder without a cure. The abnormal parenchymal accumulation of β-amyloid (Ab) is associated with inflammatory reactions involving microglia and astrocytes. Increased levels of Ab and Ab deposition in the brain are thought to cause neuronal dysfunction and underlie dementia. Microglia, the brain resident cells of monocytic origin, have a potential ability to phagocytose Ab but they also react to Ab by increased production of proinflammatory toxic agents. Microglia originate from hemangioblastic mesoderm during early embryonic stages and from bone marrow (BM)-derived monocytic cells that home the brain through-out the neonatal stage of development. Recent studies indicate that BM or blood-derived monocytes are recruited to the diseased AD brain, associate with the Ab depositions, and are more efficient phagocytes of Ab compared with resident microglia. The clearance of Ab deposition by these cells has been recently under intensive investigation and can occur through several different mechanisms. Importantly, peripheral monocytic cells of patients with AD appear to be deficient in clearing Ab. This review will summarize the findings on the role of blood-derived cells in AD and discuss their therapeutic potential for treating patients suffering from this devastating disease. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.


Magga J.,University of Eastern Finland | Magga J.,University of Oulu | Savchenko E.,University of Eastern Finland | Malm T.,University of Eastern Finland | And 12 more authors.
Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine | Year: 2012

Accumulation of amyloid β (Aβ) is a major hallmark in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Bone marrow derived monocytic cells (BMM) have been shown to reduce Aβ burden in mouse models of AD, alleviating the AD pathology. BMM have been shown to be more efficient phagocytes in AD than the endogenous brain microglia. Because BMM have a natural tendency to infiltrate into the injured area, they could be regarded as optimal candidates for cell-based therapy in AD. In this study, we describe a method to obtain monocytic cells from BM-derived haematopoietic stem cells (HSC). Mouse or human HSC were isolated and differentiated in the presence of macrophage colony stimulating factor (MCSF). The cells were characterized by assessing the expression profile of monocyte markers and cytokine response to inflammatory stimulus. The phagocytic capacity was determined with Aβ uptake assay in vitro and Aβ degradation assay of natively formed Aβ deposits ex vivo and in a transgenic APdE9 mouse model of AD in vivo. HSC were lentivirally transduced with enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) to determine the effect of gene modification on the potential of HSC-derived cells for therapeutic purposes. HSC-derived monocytic cells (HSCM) displayed inflammatory responses comparable to microglia and peripheral monocytes. We also show that HSCM contributed to Aβ reduction and could be genetically modified without compromising their function. These monocytic cells could be obtained from human BM or mobilized peripheral blood HSC, indicating a potential therapeutic relevance for AD. © 2011 The Authors Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine © 2011 Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


Heikkinen R.,University of Eastern Finland | Malm T.,University of Eastern Finland | Heikkila J.,Kuopio University Hospital | Muona A.,Medeia Therapeutics Ltd | And 4 more authors.
Aging and Disease | Year: 2014

Cerebral ischemia is a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Moreover, recent evidence indicates that it is a two-way street as the incidence rate of stroke is significantly higher in AD patients than those without the disease. Here we investigated the interaction of ischemic brain insults and AD in 9-month-old ApdE9 mice, which show full-blown accumulation of Aβ deposits and microgliosis in the brain. Permanent occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (pMCAo) resulted in 36% larger infarct in ApdE9 mice compared to their wild-type (wt) controls. This was not due to differences in endothelium-dependent vascular reactivity. Treatment with human intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) reduced the infarct volumes and abolished the increased vulnerability of ApdE9 mice to pMCAo induced brain ischemia. When the mice were exposed to global brain ischemia (GI), an insult of hippocampal cells, ApdE9 mice showed increased neuronal loss in CA2 and CA3 subregions compared to their wt controls. GI was associated with increased microgliosis, astrogliosis, infiltration of blood-derived monocytic cells, and neurogenesis without clear differences between the genotypes. IVIG treatment prevented the GI-induced neuron loss in hippocampal CA1 and CA3 regions in ApdE9 mice. IVIG treatment increased microgliosis in wt but not in ApdE9 mice. Finally, GI induced 60% reduction in the hippocampal Aβ burden in ApdE9 mice, which was not affected by IVIG treatment. The results indicate that the AD pathology with Aβ deposits and microgliosis increases ischemic vulnerability in various brain areas. Moreover, IVIG treatment may be beneficial especially in patients suffering from both acute ischemic insult and AD.


Patent
Medeia Therapeutics Ltd | Date: 2013-01-11

The invention relates to novel heteroarylamide derivatives having formula (I) and N-oxides, stereoisomers and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof, where R_(A), R_(B), R1 1, R, R, z and X are as defined in the claims. The arylamide derivatives of formula (I) have antiandrogenic properties. The invention also relates to compounds of formula (I) for use as a medicament and to pharmaceutical compositions comprising them and to their preparation.


Patent
Medeia Therapeutics Ltd | Date: 2011-07-14

The invention relates to novel arylamide derivatives having formula (I) and stereoisomers and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof, where R1-R11, R, R, z and X are as defined in the claims. The arylamide derivatives of formula (I) have antiandrogenic properties. The invention also relates to compounds of formula (I) for use as a medicament and to pharmaceutical compositions comprising them and to their preparation.


Patent
Medeia Therapeutics Ltd | Date: 2011-01-07

The current invention relates to methods for stimulating mammalian cells to enhance their ability to cross the blood-brain-barrier and to phagocytose and degrade beta-amyloid plaques in the brain. The current invention also relates to cells obtained by the method of the invention. The current invention also relates to methods for prevention and treatment of amyloid-accumulating disorders.

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