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Äänekoski, Finland

Turpeinen A.M.,Valio Ltd. | Ehlers P.I.,University of Helsinki | Kivimaki A.S.,University of Helsinki | Jarvenpaa S.,Medcare Oy | And 6 more authors.
Clinical and Experimental Hypertension | Year: 2011

Casein-derived tripeptides isoleucine-proline-proline (Ile-Pro-Pro) and valine-proline-proline (Val-Pro-Pro) lower blood pressure (BP) in long-term clinical studies. Their acute effects on BP and vascular function, important for daily dosing scheme, were studied in a placebo-controlled double-blind crossover study using a single oral dose of a fermented milk product containing Ile-Pro-Pro and Val-Pro-Pro as well as plant sterols. Twenty-five subjects with untreated mild hypertension received in random order 250 g of study product (25 mg peptides and 2 g plant sterols) or placebo. Ambulatory BP was monitored for 8 h post-dose and arterial stiffness measured by pulse wave analysis at 2, 4, and 8 h. Blood and urine samples were analyzed for markers of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and endothelial function. Baseline adjusted treatment effect for systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and mean arterial BP was -2.1 mmHg (95% CI: -4.1 to -0.1, p = 0.045), -1.6 mmHg (95% CI: -3.1 to -0.1, p = 0.03), and -1,9 mmHg (95% CI: -3-3 to -0.4, p = 0.0093), respectively, in favor of the active treatment for 8 h post- dose. No significant differences between the treatments were seen in brachial or aortic augmentation index, pulse wave velocity, or markers of RAS. Urinary excretion of cGMP, the second messenger of endothelial nitric oxide, was higher in the active group vs. placebo (p = 0.01). The results indicate that a single dose of a fermented milk product containing Ile-Pro-Pro and Val-Pro-Pro and plant sterols acutely lowers brachial SBP and DBP in mildly hypertensive subjects. © 2011 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. Source


Turpeinen A.M.,Valio Ltd. | Jarvenpaa S.,Medcare Oy | Kautiainen H.,Unit of Family Practice | Kautiainen H.,Kuopio University Hospital | And 2 more authors.
Annals of Medicine | Year: 2013

A meta-analysis of possible antihypertensive effects of small doses of bioactive tripeptides isoleucine-proline-proline and valine-proline-proline in commercial milk products or tablets was carried out. A random effects model was used on 19 randomized, placebo-controlled clinical intervention trials (published 1996-October 2010) consisting of about 1500 prehypertensive or mildly hypertensive subjects.The overall blood pressure lowering for systolic blood pressure was -4.0 mmHg (95% CI -5.9 to -2.1 mmHg, P < 0.001) and for diastolic blood pressure -1.9 mmHg (95% CI -3.1 to -0.8 mmHg, P < 0.001). However, a positive effect was not reported in all the studies. The results suggest that rather small daily doses of the lactotripeptides in different functional food products may offer a valuable option as a non-pharmacological treatment of prehypertension or mild hypertension as part of life-style advice. © 2013 Informa UK, Ltd. Source


Turpeinen A.M.,Valio Ltd. R and D | Ikonen M.,Valio Ltd. R and D | Kivimaki A.S.,University of Helsinki | Kautiainen H.,Medcare Oy | And 2 more authors.
Food and Function | Year: 2012

Lifestyle intervention is recommended as the primary treatment for mild hypertension and hypercholesterolemia. We studied the effects of a spread containing bioactive milk peptides IPP and VPP, as well as plant sterols, on cardiovascular risk factors in 104 hypertensive, hypercholesterolemic subjects in a randomised, placebo-controlled double-blind intervention. Middle-aged subjects consumed 20 g day-1 of a spread containing 4.2 mg of IPP and VPP as well as 2 g of plant sterols for 10 weeks after a 2 week run-in period. Blood pressure was measured at home 3 times a week. Office blood Pressure and 24 h ambulatory blood pressure measurements were performed at the end of the run-in and intervention periods. Blood samples were analysed for serum lipids, plasma glucose and inflammation markers. A significant decrease (-4.1 mmHg vs. -0.5 mmHg, p = 0.007) in systolic blood Pressure was seen in the active group, compared to placebo at home measurements. Office blood Pressure and 24 h nighttime or daytime ambulatory systolic or diastolic pressure did not differ between the groups. Total (-0.16 vs. 0.25 mmol 1-1 p = 0.005) and LDL cholesterol (-0.16 vs. 0.18 mmol 1-1 p = 0.006) decreased significantly in the active group compared to the placebo. No significant differences between groups were seen for plasma glucose or inflammation markers. The results thus suggest that milk peptides IPP and VPP and plant sterols, in a low-fat spread matrix, produce a clinically significant reduction in systolic blood pressure as well as serum total and LDL cholesterol without adverse effects. Functional foods that affect 2 major risk factors offer a safe and convenient way to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease by supporting lifestyle intervention. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012. Source


Maenpaa J.,Santen Oy | Volotinen-Maja M.,Medcare Oy | Kautiainen H.,University of Helsinki | Neuvonen M.,University of Helsinki | And 3 more authors.
Drug Metabolism and Disposition | Year: 2014

Although ophthalmic timolol is generally well tolerated, a significant fraction of topically administered timolol can be systemically absorbed. We investigated the effect of the strong CYP2D6 inhibitor paroxetine on the pharmacokinetics of timolol after ophthalmic administration. In a four-phase crossover study, 12 healthy volunteers ingested either paroxetine (20 mg) or placebo daily for 3 days. In phases 1-2, timolol 0.1% gel, and in phases 3-4, timolol 0.5% drops were administered to both eyes. Paroxetine increased the plasma concentrations of timolol with both timolol formulations to a similar degree. The geometric mean ratio (95% confidence interval) of timolol peak concentration was 1.53-fold (1.23-1.91) with 0.1% timolol and 1.49-fold (0.94-2.36) with 0.5% timolol, and that of timolol area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) from time 0 to 12 hours was 1.61 -fold (1.26- to 2.06-fold) and 1.78-fold (1.21 -2.62), respectively. During paroxetine administration, six subjects on 0.5% timolol drops, but none on 0.1% timolol gel, had plasma timolol concentrations exceeding 0.7 ng/ml, which can cause systemic adverse effects in patients at risk. There was a positive correlation between the AUC from time 0 to 13 hours of paroxetine and the placebo phase AUC from time 0 to infinity of timolol after timolol 0.5% drops (P < 0.05), and a nonsignificant trend after timolol 0.1% gel, consistent with the role of CYP2D6 in the metabolism of both agents. In the orthostatic test, heart rate immediately after upright standing was significantly lower (P < 0.05) during the paroxetine phase than during the placebo phase at 1 and 3 hours after 0.5% timolol dosing. In conclusion, paroxetine and other CYP2D6 inhibitors can have a clinically important interaction with ophthalmic timolol, particularly when patients are using 0.5% timolol formulations. Copyright © 2014 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Source


Jauhiainen T.,University of Helsinki | Jauhiainen T.,Valio Ltd. | Pilvi T.,University of Helsinki | Pilvi T.,Valio Ltd. | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism | Year: 2010

Tripeptides isoleucyl-prolyl-proline (IPP) and valyl-prolyl-proline (VPP) act as ACE inhibitors in vitro. Double transgenic rats (dTGR) harbouring human renin and human angiotensinogen genes develop malignant hypertension due to increased angiotensin II formation. The present study was aimed to evaluate possible antihypertensive effect of IPP and VPP in this severe model. Four-week-old dTGR were randomized in three groups to receive: (1) water (control), (2) fermented milk containing IPP and VPP, and (3) IPP and VPP dissolved in water for three weeks. Fermented milk, but not peptides in water, attenuated the development of hypertension in dTGR by 19 mmHg versus the control group (P =.023). In vitro vascular function tests showed that high concentrations of the peptides evinced ACE inhibitory properties. In other hypertension related variables, no significant differences between the treatment groups were found. In conclusion, fermented milk product containing IPP and VPP prevents development of malignant hypertension in an animal model. © 2010 Tiina Jauhiainen et al. Source

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