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Med Imaps

Artigues-près-Bordeaux, France
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Iki M.,Kinki University | Fujita Y.,Kinki University | Tamaki J.,Osaka Medical College | Kouda K.,Kinki University | And 6 more authors.
Osteoporosis International | Year: 2015

Summary: FRAX® is widely used to evaluate fracture risk of individuals in clinical settings. However, FRAX® prediction accuracy is not sufficient, and improvement is desired. Trabecular bone score, a bone microarchitecture index, may improve FRAX® prediction accuracy for major osteoporotic fractures in community-dwelling elderly Japanese men. Introduction: To improve fracture risk assessment in clinical settings, we evaluated whether the combination of FRAX® and Trabecular Bone Score (TBS) improves the prediction accuracy of major osteoporotic fractures (MOFs) in elderly Japanese men compared to FRAX® alone. Methods: Two thousand and twelve community-dwelling men aged ≥65 years completed the Fujiwara-kyo Osteoporosis Risk in Men (FORMEN) Baseline Study comprising lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck areal bone mineral density (aBMD) measurements, and interviews regarding clinical risk factors required to estimate 10-year risk of MOF (hip, spine, distal forearm, and proximal humerus) using the Japanese version of FRAX® (v.3.8). TBS was calculated for the same vertebrae used for LS-aBMD with TBS iNsight software (v.2.1). MOFs that occurred during the follow-up period were identified by interviews or mail and telephone surveys. Prediction accuracy of a logistic model combining FRAX® score and TBS compared to FRAX® alone was evaluated by area under receiver-operating characteristic curves (AUCs), as well as category-free integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) and net reclassification improvement (NRI). Results: We identified 22 men with MOFs during 8140 person-years (PY) of follow-up among 1872 men; 67 men who suffered from fractures other than MOFs were excluded. Participants with MOFs had significantly lower TBS (p = 0.0015) and higher FRAX® scores (p = 0.0089) than those without. IDI and NRI showed significant improvements in reclassification accuracy using FRAX® plus TBS compared to FRAX® alone (IDI 0.006 (p = 0.0362), NRI 0.452 (p = 0.0351)), although no difference was observed in AUCs between the two. Conclusions: TBS may improve MOF prediction accuracy of FRAX® for community-dwelling elderly Japanese men. © 2015, International Osteoporosis Foundation and National Osteoporosis Foundation.

Iki M.,Kinki University | Tamaki J.,Kinki University | Kadowaki E.,Kinki University | Sato Y.,Jin-ai University | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Bone and Mineral Research | Year: 2014

Bone strength is predominantly determined by bone density, but bone microarchitecture also plays an important role. We examined whether trabecular bone score (TBS) predicts the risk of vertebral fractures in a Japanese female cohort. Of 1950 randomly selected women aged 15 to 79 years, we analyzed data from 665 women aged 50 years and older, who completed the baseline study and at least one follow-up survey over 10 years, and who had no conditions affecting bone metabolism. Each survey included spinal imaging by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for vertebral fracture assessment and spine areal bone mineral density (aBMD) measurement. TBS was obtained from spine DXA scans archived in the baseline study. Incident vertebral fracture was determined when vertebral height was reduced by 20% or more and satisfied McCloskey-Kanis criteria or Genant's grade 2 fracture at follow-up. Among eligible women (mean age 64.1 ± 8.1 years), 92 suffered incident vertebral fractures (16.7/103 person-years). These women were older with lower aBMD and TBS values relative to those without fractures. The unadjusted odds ratio of vertebral fractures for one standard deviation decrease in TBS was 1.98 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.56, 2.51) and remained significant (1.64, 95% CI 1.25, 2.15) after adjusting for aBMD. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of TBS and aBMD combined was 0.700 for vertebral fracture prediction and was not significantly greater than that of aBMD alone (0.673). However, reclassification improvement measures indicated that TBS and aBMD combined significantly improved risk prediction accuracy compared with aBMD alone. Further inclusion of age and prevalent vertebral deformity in the model improved vertebral fracture prediction, and TBS remained significant in the model. Thus, lower TBS was associated with higher risk of vertebral fracture over 10 years independently of aBMD and clinical risk factors including prevalent vertebral deformity. TBS could effectively improve fracture risk assessment in clinical settings. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

Di Gregorio S.,Cetir Grup Medic | Di Gregorio S.,Charles III University of Madrid | Del Rio L.,Cetir Grup Medic | Del Rio L.,Charles III University of Madrid | And 4 more authors.
Bone | Year: 2015

Purpose: The objective of the study was to assess longitudinal effects of different osteoporosis treatments on TBS and aBMD at lumbar spine. Method: We analyzed 390 patients (men: 72; women: 318; age>40years; mean follow-up of 20months and BMI<37kg/m2). We stratified the cohort by treatments: Naive of treatment (Naive, n=67), Calcium and Vitamin D (CaVitD, n=87), Testosterone (Te, n=36), Alendronate (AL, n=88), Risedronate (Ri, n=39), Denosumab (Dmb, n=43) and Teriparatide (PTH, n=30). The follow-up changes from baseline were normalized at 24months. Results: After 24. months, Naive group TBS decreased by 3.1% (p. <. 0.05) whereas a non-significant increase was observed for spine aBMD (δ. =. +. 0.5%). Compared to the Naive group, significant improvement (p. <. 0.05) was observed in both TBS and aBMD for Te, AL, Ri, Dmb and PTH groups and in the CaVitD group for TBS. At the end of the follow-up, significant improvement have been observed for aBMD in Te (+. 4.4%), AL (+. 4.1%), Ri (+. 4.8), D (+. 8.8%) and PTH (+. 8.8%) groups. Significant improvement was observed only in the AL (+. 1.4%), Dmb (+. 2.8%) and PTH (+. 3.6%) groups for TBS. Conclusion: As expected, TBS of Naive subjects decreased with age. As expected a TBS preservation has been observed under AL and Ri. Te and CaVitD effects on TBS were evaluated for the first time: a similar preservation effect has been observed. A significant TBS increase was observed under Denosumab and PTH. TBS could be a useful tool to monitor treatment effects. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

Leib E.,Burlington College | Winzenrieth R.,Med Imaps | Aubry-Rozier B.,University of Lausanne | Hans D.,University of Lausanne
Bone | Year: 2014

Introduction: Although osteoporosis is considered a disease of women, 25% of the individuals with osteoporosis are men. BMD measurement by DXA is the gold standard used to diagnose osteoporosis and assess fracture risk. Nevertheless, BMD does not take into account alterations of microarchitecture. TBS is an index of bone microarchitecture extracted from the spine DXA. Previous studies have reported the ability of the spine TBS to predict osteoporotic fractures in women. This is the first case-controlled study in men to evaluate the potential diagnostic value of TBS as a complement to bone mineral density (BMD), by comparing men with and without fractures. Methods: To be eligible for this study, subjects had to be non-Hispanic US white men aged 40 and older. Furthermore, subjects were excluded if they have or have had previously any treatment or illness that may influence bone metabolism. Fractured subjects were included if the presence of at least one fracture was confirmed. Cases were matched for age (±3years) and BMD (±0.04g/cm2) with three controls. BMD and TBS were first retrospectively evaluated at AP spine (L1-L4) with a Prodigy densitometer (GE-Lunar, Madison, USA) and TBS iNsight® (Med-Imaps, France) in Lausanne University Hospital blinded from clinical outcome. Inter-group comparisons were undertaken using Student's t-tests or Wilcoxon signed rank tests. Odds ratios were calculated per one standard deviation decrease as well as areas under the receiver operating curve (AUC). Results: After applying inclusion/exclusion criteria, a group of 180 male subjects was obtained. This group consists of 45 fractured subjects (age=63.3±12.6years, BMI=27.1±4.2kg/m2) and 135 control subjects (age=62.9±11.9years, BMI=26.7±3.9kg/m2) matched for age (p=0.86) and BMD (p=0.20). A weak correlation was obtained between TBS and BMD and between TBS and BMI (r=0.27 and r=-0.28, respectively, p<0.01). Subjects with fracture have a significant lower TBS compared to control subjects (p=0.013), whereas no differences were obtained for BMI, height and weight (p>0.10). TBS OR per standard deviation is 1.55 [1.09-2.20] for all fracture type. When considering vertebral fracture only TBS OR reached 2.07 [1.14-3.74]. Conclusion: This study showed the potential use of TBS in men. TBS revealed a significant difference between fractured and age- and spine BMD-matched nonfractured subjects. These results are consistent with those previously reported on for men of other nationalities. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Simonelli C.,HealthEast Osteoporosis Care | Leib E.,University of Vermont | Mossman N.,Oregon Osteoporosis Center | Winzenrieth R.,Med Imaps | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Densitometry | Year: 2014

The trabecular bone score (TBS, Med-Imaps, Pessac, France) is an index of bone microarchitecture texture extracted from anteroposterior dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry images of the spine. Previous studies have documented the ability of TBS of the spine to differentiate between women with and without fractures among age- and areal bone mineral density (aBMD)-matched controls, as well as to predict future fractures. In this cross-sectional analysis of data collected from 3 geographically dispersed facilities in the United States, we investigated age-related changes in the microarchitecture of lumbar vertebrae as assessed by TBS in a cohort of non-Hispanic US white American women. All subjects were 30 yr of age and older and had an L1-L4aBMDZ-score within ±2 SD of the population mean. Individuals were excluded if they had fractures, were on any osteoporosis treatment, or had any illness that would be expected to impact bone metabolism. All data were extracted from Prodigy dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry devices (GE-Lunar, Madison, WI). Cross-calibrations between the 3 participating centers were performed for TBS and aBMD. aBMD and TBS were evaluated for spine L1-L4 but also for all other possible vertebral combinations. To validate the cohort, a comparison between the aBMD normative data of our cohort and US non-Hispanic white Lunar data provided by the manufacturer was performed. A database of 619 non-Hispanic US white women, ages 30-90 yr, was created. aBMD normative data obtained from this cohort were not statistically different from the non-Hispanic US white Lunar normative data provided by the manufacturer (p = 0.30). This outcome thereby indirectly validates our cohort. TBS values at L1-L4 were weakly inversely correlated with body mass index (r = -0.17) and weight (r = -0.16) and not correlated with height. TBS values for all lumbar vertebral combinations decreased significantly with age. There was a linear decrease of 16.0% (-2.47 T-score) in TBS at L1-L4 between 45 and 90 yr of age (vs. -2.34 for aBMD). Microarchitectural loss rate increased after age 65 by 50% (-0.004 to -0.006). Similar results were obtained for other combinations of lumbar vertebra. TBS, an index of bone microarchitectural texture, decreases with advancing age in non-Hispanic US white women. Little change in TBS is observed between ages 30 and 45. Thereafter, a progressive decrease is observed with advancing age. The changes we observed in these American women are similar to that previously reported for a French population of white women (r2 > 0.99). This reference database will facilitate the use of TBS to assess bone microarchitectural deterioration in clinical practice. © 2014 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry.

Leib E.,University of Vermont | Winzenrieth R.,Med Imaps | Lamy O.,University of Lausanne | Hans D.,University of Lausanne
Calcified Tissue International | Year: 2014

Several cross-sectional studies have shown the ability of the TBS to discriminate between those with and without fractures in European populations. The aim of this study was to assess the ability of TBS to discriminate between those with and without fractures in a large female Caucasian population in the USA. This was a case-control study of 2,165 Caucasian American women aged 40 and older. Patients with illness or taking medications known to affect bone metabolism were excluded. Those in the fracture group (n = 289) had at least one low-energy fracture. BMD was measured at L1-L4, TBS calculated directly from the same DXA image. Descriptive statistics and inferential tests for difference were used. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were created to investigate possible association between independent variables and the status of fracture. Odds ratios per standard deviation decrease (OR) and areas under the ROC curve were calculated for discriminating parameters. Weak correlations were observed between TBS and BMD and between TBS and BMI (r = 0.33 and -0.17, respectively, p < 0.01). Mean age, weight, BMD and TBS were significantly different between control and fracture groups (all p ≤ 0.05), whereas no difference was noted for BMI or height. After adjusting for age, weight, BMD, smoking, and maternal and family history of fracture, TBS (but not BMD) remained a significant predictor of fracture: OR 1.28[1.13-1.46] even after adjustment. In a US female population, TBS again was able to discriminate between those with and those without fractures, even after adjusting for other clinical risk factors. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media.

Leib E.S.,University of Vermont | Winzenrieth R.,Med Imaps
Osteoporosis International | Year: 2016

Summary: We recorded the results of areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and microarchitecture of the bone measured by trabecular bone score (TBS) in 416 glucocorticoid-treated men and women aged 40 years and older with or without fracture to 1104 controls. TBS better discriminated those with fracture compared to aBMD. These differences were the greatest in men. Introduction: The aim of this study is to evaluate glucocorticoid (GC)-induced effects on areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and bone microarchitectural texture measured by trabecular bone score (TBS). Methods: TBS and aBMD were evaluated at L1–L4 postero-anterior (PA) spine by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in 1520 men and women aged 40 years and over. Four hundred sixteen subjects who received GCs (≥5 mg/day, for ≥3 months) were matched with 1104 sex-, age-, and BMI-matched control subjects. Clinical data, osteoporotic fractures (OPF), and dietary habits were documented in the medical report. Results: GC-treated patients were characterized by a significant decrease of TBS (1.267 vs. 1.298, p < 0.001) compared with control-matched subjects while no change in BMD was observed at any sites. These decreases were even more pronounced when fracture status was taken into account (1.222 vs. 1.298, p < 0.001). The odds ratio (OR) for TBS was 1.44 (1.095–1.89) for OPF, whereas no association was found for BMD at any sites (all p > 0.3). A similar effect on microarchitecture measured by TBS was seen by the presence of fracture as by the use of glucocorticoids. An influence on TBS by sex was also noted with a decrease in TBS of greater magnitude in men. Conclusions: GC-treated individuals have a significant deterioration of bone microarchitectural texture as assessed by TBS which is more marked in those with OPF and in men. TBS seems to be more sensitive than aBMD for GC-related fracture detection and should be a good surrogate indicator of bone health in such secondary osteoporosis. © 2015, International Osteoporosis Foundation and National Osteoporosis Foundation.

Touvier J.,University of Orléans | Winzenrieth R.,Med Imaps | Johansson H.,University of Sheffield | Roux J.P.,University of Lyon | And 5 more authors.
Calcified Tissue International | Year: 2015

The use of bone mineral density (BMD) for fracture discrimination may be improved by considering bone microarchitecture. Texture parameters such as trabecular bone score (TBS) or mean Hurst parameter (H) could help to find women who are at high risk of fracture in the non-osteoporotic group. The purpose of this study was to combine BMD and microarchitectural texture parameters (spine TBS and calcaneus H) for the detection of osteoporotic fractures. Two hundred and fifty five women had a lumbar spine (LS), total hip (TH), and femoral neck (FN) DXA. Additionally, texture analyses were performed with TBS on spine DXA and with H on calcaneus radiographs. Seventy-nine women had prevalent fragility fractures. The association with fracture was evaluated by multivariate logistic regressions. The diagnostic value of each parameter alone and together was evaluated by odds ratios (OR). The area under curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) were assessed in models including BMD, H, and TBS. Women were also classified above and under the lowest tertile of H or TBS according to their BMD status. Women with prevalent fracture were older and had lower TBS, H, LS-BMD, and TH-BMD than women without fracture. Age-adjusted ORs were 1.66, 1.70, and 1.93 for LS, FN, and TH-BMD, respectively. Both TBS and H remained significantly associated with fracture after adjustment for age and TH-BMD: OR 2.07 [1.43; 3.05] and 1.47 [1.04; 2.11], respectively. The addition of texture parameters in the multivariate models didn’t show a significant improvement of the ROC-AUC. However, women with normal or osteopenic BMD in the lowest range of TBS or H had significantly more fractures than women above the TBS or the H threshold. We have shown the potential interest of texture parameters such as TBS and H in addition to BMD to discriminate patients with or without osteoporotic fractures. However, their clinical added values should be evaluated relative to other risk factors. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

The aim of the present study is to determine the level of correlation between the 3-dimensional (3D) characteristics of trabecular bone microarchitecture, as evaluated using microcomputed tomography (μCT) reconstruction, and trabecular bone score (TBS), as evaluated using 2D projection images directly derived from 3D μCT reconstruction (TBSμCT). Moreover, we have evaluated the effects of image degradation (resolution and noise) and X-ray energy of projection on these correlations. Thirty human cadaveric vertebrae were acquired on a microscanner at an isotropic resolution of 93. μm. The 3D microarchitecture parameters were obtained using MicroView (GE Healthcare, Wauwatosa, MI). The 2D projections of these 3D models were generated using the Beer-Lambert law at different X-ray energies. Degradation of image resolution was simulated (from 93 to 1488. μm). Relationships between 3D microarchitecture parameters and TBSμCT at different resolutions were evaluated using linear regression analysis. Significant correlations were observed between TBSμCT and 3D microarchitecture parameters, regardless of the resolution. Correlations were detected that were strongly to intermediately positive for connectivity density (0.711≤r2≤0.752) and trabecular number (0.584≤r2≤0.648) and negative for trabecular space (-0.407 ≤r2≤-0.491), up to a pixel size of 1023μm. In addition, TBSμCT values were strongly correlated between each other (0.77≤r2≤0.96). Study results show that the correlations between TBSμCT at 93μm and 3D microarchitecture parameters are weakly impacted by the degradation of image resolution and the presence of noise. © 2013 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry.

Dufour R.,Rhone Durance Clinic | Winzenrieth R.,Med Imaps | Heraud A.,Robert Boulin Hospital | Hans D.,University of Lausanne | Mehsen N.,Bordeaux University Hospital Center
Osteoporosis International | Year: 2013

Age-related changes in lumbar vertebral microarchitecture are evaluated, as assessed by trabecular bone score (TBS), in a cohort of 5,942 French women. The magnitude of TBS decline between 45 and 85 years of age is piecewise linear in the spine and averaged 14.5 %. TBS decline rate increases after 65 years by 50 %. Introduction: This study aimed to evaluate age-related changes in lumbar vertebral microarchitecture, as assessed by TBS, in a cohort of French women aged 45-85 years. Methods: An all-comers cohort of French Caucasian women was selected from two clinical centers. Data obtained from these centers were cross-calibrated for TBS and bone mineral density (BMD). BMD and TBS were evaluated at L1-L4 and for all lumbar vertebrae combined using GE-Lunar Prodigy densitometer images. Weight, height, and body mass index (BMI) also were determined. To validate our all-comers cohort, the BMD normative data of our cohort and French Prodigy data were compared. Results: A cohort of 5,942 French women aged 45 to 85 years was created. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry normative data obtained for BMD from this cohort were not significantly different from French prodigy normative data (p = 0.15). TBS values at L1-L4 were poorly correlated with BMI (r = -0.17) and weight (r = -0.14) and not correlated with height. TBS values obtained for all lumbar vertebra combined (L1, L2, L3, L4) decreased with age. The magnitude of TBS decline at L1-L4 between 45 and 85 years of age was piecewise linear in the spine and averaged 14.5 %, but this rate increased after 65 years by 50 %. Similar results were obtained for other region of interest in the lumbar spine. As opposed to BMD, TBS was not affected by spinal osteoarthrosis. Conclusion: The age-specific reference curve for TBS generated here could therefore be used to help clinicians to improve osteoporosis patient management and to monitor microarchitectural changes related to treatment or other diseases in routine clinical practice. © 2013 International Osteoporosis Foundation and National Osteoporosis Foundation.

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