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News Article
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A new technique invented at MIT can precisely measure the growth of many individual cells simultaneously. The advance holds promise for fast drug tests, offers new insights into growth variation across single cells within larger populations, and helps track the dynamic growth of cells to changing environmental conditions. The technique, described in a paper published in Nature Biotechnology, uses an array of suspended microchannel resonators (SMR), a type of microfluidic device that measures the mass of individual cells as they flow through tiny channels. A novel design has increased throughput of the device by nearly two orders of magnitude, while retaining precision. The paper’s senior author, MIT professor Scott Manalis, and other researchers have been developing SMRs for nearly a decade. In the new study, the researchers used the device to observe the effects of antibiotics and antimicrobial peptides on bacteria, and to pinpoint growth variations of single cells among populations, which has important clinical applications. Slower-growing bacteria, for instance, can sometimes be more resistant to antibiotics and may lead to recurrent infections. “The device provides new insights into how cells grow and respond to drugs,” says Manalis, the Andrew (1956) and Erna Viterbi Professor in the MIT departments of Biological Engineering and Mechanical Engineering and a member of the Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research. The paper’s lead authors are Nathan Cermak, a recent PhD graduate from MIT’s Computational and Systems Biology Program, and Selim Olcum, a research scientist at the Koch Institute. There are 13 other co-authors on the paper, from the Koch Institute, MIT’s Microsystems Technology Laboratory, the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Innovative Micro Technology, and CEA LETI in France. Manalis and his colleagues first developed the SMR in 2007 and have since introduced multiple innovations for different purposes, including to track single cell growth over time, measure cell density, weigh cell-secreted nanovesicles, and, most recently, measure the short-term growth response of cells in changing nutrient conditions. All of these techniques have relied on a crucial scheme: One fluid-filled microchannel is etched in a tiny silicon cantilever sensor that vibrates inside a vacuum cavity. When a cell enters the cantilever, it slightly alters the sensor’s vibration frequency, and this signal can be used to determine the cell’s weight. To measure a cell’s growth rate, Manalis and colleagues could pass an individual cell through the channel repeatedly, back and forth, over a period of about 20 minutes. During that time, a cell can accumulate mass that is measurable by the SMR. But while the SMR weighs cells 10 to 100 times more accurately than any other method, it has been limited to one cell at a time, meaning it could take many hours, or even days, to measure enough cells. The key to the new technology was designing and controlling an array of 10 to 12 cantilever sensors that act like weigh stations, recording the mass of a cell as it flows through the postage-stamp-sized device. Between each sensor are winding “delay channels,” each about five centimeters in length, through which the cells flow for about two minutes, giving them time to grow before reaching the next sensor. Whenever one cell exits a sensor, another cell can enter, increasing the device’s throughput. Results show the mass of each cell at each sensor, graphing the extent to which they’ve grown or shrunk. In the study, the researchers were able to measure about 60 mammalian cells and 150 bacteria per hour, compared to single SMRs, which measured only a few cells in that time. “Being able to rapidly measure the full distribution of growth rates shows us both how typical cells are behaving, an­­d also lets us detect outliers — which was previously very difficult with limited throughput or precision,” Cermak says. One comparable method for measuring masses of many individual cells simultaneously is called quantitative phase microscopy (QPM), which calculates the dry mass of cells by measuring their optical thickness. Unlike the SMR-based approach, QPM can be used on cells that grow adhered to surfaces. However, the SMR-based approach is significantly more precise. “We can reliably resolve changes of less than one-tenth of a percent of a cancer cell’s mass in about 20 minutes. This precision is proving to be essential for many of the clinical applications that we’re pursuing,” Olcum says. In one experiment using the device, the researchers observed the effects of an antibiotic, called kanamycin, on E. coli. Kanamycin inhibits protein synthesis in bacteria, eventually stopping their growth and killing the cells. Traditional antibiotic tests require growing a culture of bacteria, which could take a day or more. Using the new device, within an hour the researchers recorded a change in rate in which the cells accumulate mass. The reduced recording time is critical in testing drugs against bacterial infections in clinical settings, Manalis says: “In some cases, having a rapid test for selecting an antibiotic can make an important difference in the survival of a patient.” Similarly, the researchers used the device to observe the effects of an antimicrobial peptide called CM15, a relatively new protein-based candidate for fighting bacteria. Such candidates are increasingly important as bacteria strains become resistant to common antibiotics. CM15 makes microscopic holes in bacteria cell walls, such that the cell’s contents gradually leak out, eventually killing the cell. However, because only the mass of the cell changes and not its size, the effects may be missed by traditional microscopy techniques. Indeed, the researchers observed the E. coli cells rapidly losing mass immediately following exposure to CM15. Such results could lend validation to the peptide and other novel drugs by providing some insight into the mechanism, Manalis says. The researchers are currently working with members of the Dana Farber Cancer Institute, through the the Koch Institute and Dana Farber/Harvard Cancer Center Bridge Project, to determine if the device could be used to predict patient response to therapy by weighing tumor cells in the presence of anticancer drugs. Marc Kirschner, a professor and chair of the Department of Systems Biology at Harvard Medical School, who was not involved in the study, said the new microfluidics device will open up new avenues for studying the “physiology and pharmacology of cell growth. … Since growth is related to proliferation and to the stress a cell is under, it is a natural feature to study, but it has been difficult before this method.” “The technical problems to get this working were significant and it is still incredible for me to think that they pulled this off,” Kirschner adds. “I expect that when it is … into biology labs it will be useful for many problems in cancer, metabolism, cell death, and cell stress.” The research was sponsored, in part, by the U.S. Army Research Office, the Koch Institute and Dana Farber/Harvard Cancer Center Bridge Project, the National Science Foundation, and the National Cancer Institute.


News Article
Site: http://news.mit.edu/topic/mitenvironment-rss.xml

The massive Deonar dumping ground in Mumbai has become the most visible emblem of an increasingly serious nationwide problem for India: what to do with its trash. Deonar’s towers of garbage are tall enough that there are concerns they could affect the flight patterns of airplanes coming and going from India’s financial capital. The dump has caught fire twice so far in 2016, enveloping the city in smoke and raising an outcry from locals. And Mumbai isn’t alone. Nearly every city in India faces waste management challenges that are only expected to grow along with rising population and affluence. A team of researchers at MIT’s Materials Systems Laboratory and Tata Center for Technology and Design wants to help cities understand their waste streams and begin to manage them in ways that are socially, economically, and environmentally sustainable. Led by Randolph Kirchain, principal research scientist in the Materials Processing Center, and Jeremy Gregory, research scientist in the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, the team is developing a decision-support tool to help Indian cities optimize the way they collect, transport, and treat household waste. “Like many things in India, there’s no one-size-fits-all solution,” Gregory says. “Everyone interacts with the solid waste system, so everyone stands to gain from better management. But to do it right, you have to understand the cultural, socioeconomic, and technical context of a particular city.” For example, every day in the north Indian city of Muzaffarnagar, a complex system goes into action, attempting to deal with the 120 tons of solid waste — glass, plastic, paper, food — generated by the city’s residents. Hundreds of waste collectors fan out across the city pedaling tricycle carts, which they fill with the refuse from approximately 50,000 households before taking it away to be treated or dumped. Meanwhile, informal waste workers such as kabadiwalas (scrap collectors) salvage recyclables and other valuable materials, which they sell to make their living. Finally, waste that goes uncollected is often dumped by the roadside or in bodies of water. Some variation of this largely ad hoc process occurs in dozens of cities across India, where solid waste management is a complex system of public, private, and informal players. The decision-support tool being created at MIT will use a variety of parameters to optimize a waste management system and recommend strategies tailored to a city’s needs, factoring in all the dynamics of a city like Muzaffarnagar. But first, Gregory says, “We need to understand the waste composition and how that composition varies by socioeconomic class.” Kirchain adds, “We anticipate higher waste generation in India not only because of population growth, but because of growing affluence. One motivator for us is to understand how waste might differ across income classes.” They are using Muzaffarnagar as a pilot city, where they have conducted a “waste audit” of six neighborhoods at different socioeconomic levels. “We collected waste door-to-door from 30 households in each of these neighborhoods over a span of eight weeks,” explains Dhivya Ravikumar, a Master’s student in the Technology and Policy Program and a fellow in the Tata Center. “We sorted the waste into different categories, which allowed us to quantify exactly what the composition was and how it varied by income.” Perhaps their most exciting discovery was that roughly 60-70 percent of the total waste was organic — primarily food waste. “As this organic waste is mixed with other waste streams, energy is spent separating the organic waste to extract value from it. What this means is that a lot of value is being lost,” Ravikumar says. “There’s a large potential for organic food waste that is not being tapped.” Various methods exist for converting organic waste into valuable commodities; these methods include biogas production, composting, and pelletization. This creates the potential for cities and private companies to generate additional revenue while reducing the environmental stress of waste dumping. But to take advantage of it, different waste management strategies will be needed. Suggesting what those strategies could be is where the MIT tool comes in. “Maybe you need smaller treatment centers around the city, instead of one central treatment center,” says Ravikumar. “Maybe you need to implement effective municipal policies, or create incentives for people to segregate their organic waste.” The MIT team is not advocating any particular technology. Rather, they want to recommend the most appropriate solution for a specific context, including those that are still in the exploratory stage. “We want to add to our portfolio new technologies coming out of the Tata Center program,” Gregory says, citing a bioreactor being developed by Gregory Stephanopolous, the Willard Henry Dow Professor in Chemical Engineering at MIT, and a torrefaction reactor being developed by Ahmed Ghoniem, the Ronald C. Crane (1972) Professor in Mechanical Engineering at MIT. Their next step is to scale up their audit from those six neighborhoods to the entirety of Muzaffarnagar. Ultimately, they want to identify the key parameters that will make the GIS-based tool applicable across different urban typologies. “It’s not just about designing the system that costs the least,” Gregory says. “You can also design a waste system that encourages employment, social equality, or positive environmental impact. “It’s important to remember that people make their livelihood from this system. There’s an instinct for people from Western countries to say, ‘We should have a Western-style system here,’ but we think that would be a mistake. You have to consider the impact on everyone involved, formally and informally.” The team will return to Muzaffarnagar this summer to explore collection strategies, such as incentivizing households to segregate their food waste, and also to study the impact of municipal policies on waste generation in collaboration with local government and the Shri Ram Group of Colleges.


News Article
Site: http://phys.org/technology-news/

Albert Einstein grins impishly from a poster on the wall in Professor Martin Oberlack's office. Perhaps the genius already knew decades ago that his thinking would lend wings to machine construction engineers like Martin Oberlack and help them to solve apparently unsolvable problems involving aerodynamics. Martin Oberlack explains the problem troubling aircraft and car manufacturers using a diagram hanging on the wall in the corridor of the Institute of Fluid Dynamics on the Darmstadt Lichtwiese. It looks like a brightly coloured abstract painting: a 5-metre long strip with smooth, even brush strokes dominating the left edge that become increasingly chaotic as they approach the right. In fact, it's almost as if the artist became less and less controlled as work progressed. But it's not a work of art. "It's a computer simulation of turbulence," says Professor Oberlack, and displays the vortices of air flowing over a flat panel. The vortices increase towards the right, that is as the gap to the panel increases. "That's why Business Class is at the front of an aircraft," he explains. Vortices at the back of the aircraft make that area noisier, adds the machine construction engineer. Even supercomputers can not simulate turbulences with absolute precision Noise isn't the only annoyance caused by turbulence. Vortices also cause air resistance, or drag, which increases fuel consumption. So the shape of a vehicle or aircraft should cause as few air vortices as possible. To establish the best shape, the developers experiment with various different versions in wind tunnels. Computers are also used to help with the design. All this effort, and it's still not quite enough. "Even the most powerful supercomputers in Germany can't simulate turbulence with absolute precision," explains Martin Oberlack. Why not: the less viscous a medium is, the tinier the tiniest vortices are. However, if you want to simulate the occurrence on a computer, it is needed to take vortices of all sizes into account. Engineers are not interested in every single tiny vortex in the airflow, but in statistical sizes such as the average speed in the air at different distances from the surface, because air resistance can be calculated from this profile. "The tiniest differences in the speed profile matter," he says. However, the subtle differences in the statistical values can only be derived from a complete simulation of the chaotic event – just as it takes lots of individual opinions in order for the results of a survey to be precise and reliable. This requires computers with vast memories and unimaginable computing speeds. And even though supercomputers are getting ever-faster and their memories ever-bigger, "It's still going to be about 50 years before they can calculate turbulence with a precision that eliminates the need for expensive experiments in wind tunnels," he adds. In order to reduce computing time, the developers simplify their mathematical models using empirical assumptions that are based on experiments, but that makes the simulations inaccurate. "To an airline, though, the tiniest differences in kerosene consumption matter," he emphasises. And although there is a huge gap between this requirement for exact results and the precision of the simplified simulations, Martin Oberlack doesn't seem to be losing any sleep over it. That's because the gap defines his playing field. He and his 20-strong team are the only people in the world who are ploughing it with a new method. And they have solutions to offer. So how did that come about? Professor Oberlack has worked closely with physics since the 1990s, at the renowned Stanford University in the USA. A blackboard in his office is covered in formulas known as differential equations. Most of the books in his office are also on this subject. They describe turbulences mathematically, and they are heavy stuff. And this is where Einstein comes in. "He realized how important symmetries are in physics," says Martin Oberlack. Symmetry exists when rotations, movements or other operations change nothing in the physical description of the system. A merry-go-round, for instance, looks the same on all sides, and in a spruce mono-culture it is not easy to tell whether you are in spot X or 100 metres east of it. Symmetries make it much easier to solve complex equations. Oberlack's team uses them to simplify the equations used to describe turbulence so that deriving the statistical values is easier and more precise. This enables the team to produce more exact calculations of average speeds. All well and good. But isn't turbulence the same as chaos – the absence of symmetry? Oberlack considered this question for a long time before carefully replying. It's a hidden kind of symmetry. A comparison illustrates it more clearly. When you pour milk into a cup of coffee, it creates a random, chaotic pattern. However, if you take photos of lots of these patterns and stack them, then the result is an even milky-coffee brown. The statistical observation turns chaos into symmetry. There is a similar effect in airflow: The speed of the air fluctuates as it travels just over the surface of a body, such as an aircraft fuselage. However, this fluctuation keeps stopping for short periods of time. These breaks in the chaos are called intermittencies, and appear to be random. However, if their occurrence is evaluated statistically, this reveals regularities in their frequency and duration. In the statistics, the values are often distributed evenly around a mean value, such as the size of a body. Although the distribution of the intermittencies isn't quite that symmetrical, more complex symmetries do exist. "They can be used to determine statistical sizes such as air resistance," explains Martin Oberlack. Now his team wants to integrate his findings in simulation models in order to make the calculations more precise. Based on preparatory work by Dr. Marta Waclawczyk, a former colleague of Martin Oberlack who is now a researcher at the University of Warsaw, the doctoral candidate Andreas Zieleniewicz is working on them. However, Oberlack has little hope that the optimum designs for vehicle chassis or aircraft fuselages will be spilling forth from the computer any time soon. "So far, our method has only worked on basic systems," he says, including tunnel or pipe flows. However, the machine constructor with a passion for physics is quick to emphasise that this is all basic research. But the team of scientists is researching further symmetries in the apparent chaos that could make their method more powerful, and therefore of interest for complex industrial applications. Although these symmetries do exist, they are too complex to be fully understood, explains Oberlack. "We have the justified hope that we will come to understand them." The Darmstadt researchers' unfaltering curiosity could soon be used on aircraft. Explore further: What is behind Einstein's turbulences? Calculations give initial insight into relativistic properties of this process More information: Martin OBERLACK et al. Symmetries and their importance for statistical turbulence theory, Mechanical Engineering Reviews (2015). DOI: 10.1299/mer.15-00157


News Article
Site: http://phys.org/physics-news/

Now MIT scientists have come up with a theory to predict exactly how much light is transmitted through a material, given its thickness and degree of stretch. Using this theory, they accurately predicted the changing transparency of a rubber-like polymer structure as it was stretched like a spring and inflated like a balloon. Francisco López Jiménez, a postdoc in MIT's Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, says the researchers' experimental polymer structure and their predictive understanding of it may be useful in the design of cheaper materials for smart windows—surfaces that automatically adjust the amount of incoming light. "For buildings and windows that automatically react to light, you don't have to spend as much on heating and air conditioning," López Jiménez says. "The problem is, these materials are too expensive to produce for every window in a building. Our idea was to look for a simpler and cheaper way to let through more or less light, by stretching a very simple material: a transparent polymer that is readily available." López Jiménez envisions covering window surfaces with several layers of the polymer structure. He says designers could use the group's equation to determine the amount of force to apply to a polymer layer to effectively tune the amount of incoming light. The research team—which includes López Jiménez; Pedro Reis, the Gilbert W. Winslow CD Associate Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Mechanical Engineering; and Shanmugam Kumar of the Masdar Institute of Science and Technology in Abu Dhabi—has published its results this week in the journal Advanced Optical Materials. The current work arose from a related project by Reis, López Jiménez, and Kumar, in which they analyzed the light-transmitting properties of a simple block of PDMS—a widely used rubbery, transparent polymer. The polymer block contained some darkened regions, and the team was looking to see how deforming the block would change the light traveling through the material. "It was a happy accident," López Jiménez says. "We were just playing with the material, and we soon got interested in how we can predict this and get the numbers right." The researchers set out to fabricate a type of soft color composite—a material that changes color or transparency in response to external stimuli, such as electrical, chemical, or mechanical force. Reis and López Jiménez created a thin, rectangular stack of transparent PDMS sheets, mixed with a solution of black, micron-sized dye particles, that may be easily stretched, or deformed mechanically. With no deformation, the structure appears opaque. As it is stretched or inflated, the material lets in more light. In initial experiments, the researchers shone a light through the polymer structure infused with dye particles and characterized the amount of light transmitted through the material, without any deformation. They then stretched the polymer perpendicular to the direction of light and measured both the thickness of the polymer and the light coming through. They compared their measurements with predictions from their equation, which they devised using the Beer-Lambert Law, a classical optics theory that describes the way light travels through a material with given properties. The team combined this theory with their experimental analysis, and derived a simple equation to predict the amount of light transmitted through a mechanically deformed PDMS structure. To verify their equation, Reis and López Jiménez carried out one more set of experiments, in which they clamped the PDMS structure in the shape of a disc, then inflated the material like a balloon, as they shone a light from below. They measured the amount of light coming through and found that as the material was stretched and thinned, more light came through, at exactly the same intensities that were predicted by their equation. "We can predict and characterize the evolution of light as we strain it," López Jiménez says. "If you give me the initial material properties and measure the incoming light intensity, we know exactly how much light will go through with deformation." He adds that going forward, he hopes to use the equation to help tune the transparency and optical transmittance of materials with more complex surfaces and textures. "Soft color composites offer exciting opportunities to provide materials with switchable and tunable optical properties," Reis says. "Applying this relatively simple but both robust and predictable mechanism is an exciting challenge worth pursuing for concrete engineering applications such as indoor light control through smart windows." Explore further: Wood windows? Swedes develop transparent wood material for buildings and solar cells


News Article | September 6, 2016
Site: http://www.biosciencetechnology.com/rss-feeds/all/rss.xml/all

A new technique invented at MIT can precisely measure the growth of many individual cells simultaneously. The advance holds promise for fast drug tests, offers new insights into growth variation across single cells within larger populations, and helps track the dynamic growth of cells to changing environmental conditions. The technique, described in a paper published in Nature Biotechnology, uses an array of suspended microchannel resonators (SMR), a type of microfluidic device that measures the mass of individual cells as they flow through tiny channels. A novel design has increased throughput of the device by nearly two orders of magnitude, while retaining precision. The paper’s senior author, MIT professor Scott Manalis, and other researchers have been developing SMRs for nearly a decade. In the new study, the researchers used the device to observe the effects of antibiotics and antimicrobial peptides on bacteria, and to pinpoint growth variations of single cells among populations, which has important clinical applications. Slower-growing bacteria, for instance, can sometimes be more resistant to antibiotics and may lead to recurrent infections. “The device provides new insights into how cells grow and respond to drugs,” says Manalis, the Andrew (1956) and Erna Viterbi Professor in the MIT departments of Biological Engineering and Mechanical Engineering and a member of the Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research. The paper’s lead authors are Nathan Cermak, a recent Ph.D. graduate from MIT’s Computational and Systems Biology Program, and Selim Olcum, a research scientist at the Koch Institute. There are 13 other co-authors on the paper, from the Koch Institute, MIT’s Microsystems Technology Laboratory, the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Innovative Micro Technology, and CEA LETI in France. Manalis and his colleagues first developed the SMR in 2007 and have since introduced multiple innovations for different purposes, including to track single cell growth over time, measure cell density, weigh cell-secreted nanovesicles, and, most recently, measure the short-term growth response of cells in changing nutrient conditions. All of these techniques have relied on a crucial scheme: One fluid-filled microchannel is etched in a tiny silicon cantilever sensor that vibrates inside a vacuum cavity. When a cell enters the cantilever, it slightly alters the sensor’s vibration frequency, and this signal can be used to determine the cell’s weight. To measure a cell’s growth rate, Manalis and colleagues could pass an individual cell through the channel repeatedly, back and forth, over a period of about 20 minutes. During that time, a cell can accumulate mass that is measurable by the SMR. But while the SMR weighs cells 10 to 100 times more accurately than any other method, it has been limited to one cell at a time, meaning it could take many hours, or even days, to measure enough cells. The key to the new technology was designing and controlling an array of 10 to 12 cantilever sensors that act like weigh stations, recording the mass of a cell as it flows through the postage-stamp-sized device. Between each sensor are winding “delay channels,” each about five centimeters in length, through which the cells flow for about two minutes, giving them time to grow before reaching the next sensor. Whenever one cell exits a sensor, another cell can enter, increasing the device’s throughput. Results show the mass of each cell at each sensor, graphing the extent to which they’ve grown or shrunk. In the study, the researchers were able to measure about 60 mammalian cells and 150 bacteria per hour, compared to single SMRs, which measured only a few cells in that time. “Being able to rapidly measure the full distribution of growth rates shows us both how typical cells are behaving, an­­d also lets us detect outliers — which was previously very difficult with limited throughput or precision,” Cermak says. One comparable method for measuring masses of many individual cells simultaneously is called quantitative phase microscopy (QPM), which calculates the dry mass of cells by measuring their optical thickness. Unlike the SMR-based approach, QPM can be used on cells that grow adhered to surfaces. However, the SMR-based approach is significantly more precise. “We can reliably resolve changes of less than one-tenth of a percent of a cancer cell’s mass in about 20 minutes. This precision is proving to be essential for many of the clinical applications that we’re pursuing,” Olcum says. In one experiment using the device, the researchers observed the effects of an antibiotic, called kanamycin, on E. coli. Kanamycin inhibits protein synthesis in bacteria, eventually stopping their growth and killing the cells. Traditional antibiotic tests require growing a culture of bacteria, which could take a day or more. Using the new device, within an hour the researchers recorded a change in rate in which the cells accumulate mass. The reduced recording time is critical in testing drugs against bacterial infections in clinical settings, Manalis says: “In some cases, having a rapid test for selecting an antibiotic can make an important difference in the survival of a patient.” Similarly, the researchers used the device to observe the effects of an antimicrobial peptide called CM15, a relatively new protein-based candidate for fighting bacteria. Such candidates are increasingly important as bacteria strains become resistant to common antibiotics. CM15 makes microscopic holes in bacteria cell walls, such that the cell’s contents gradually leak out, eventually killing the cell. However, because only the mass of the cell changes and not its size, the effects may be missed by traditional microscopy techniques. Indeed, the researchers observed the E. coli cells rapidly losing mass immediately following exposure to CM15. Such results could lend validation to the peptide and other novel drugs by providing some insight into the mechanism, Manalis says. The researchers are currently working with members of the Dana Farber Cancer Institute, through the MIT/DFCI Bridge program, to determine if the device could be used to predict patient response to therapy by weighing tumor cells in the presence of anticancer drugs. Marc Kirschner, a professor and chair of the Department of Systems Biology at Harvard Medical School, who was not involved in the study, said the new microfluidics device will open up new avenues for studying the “physiology and pharmacology of cell growth. … Since growth is related to proliferation and to the stress a cell is under, it is a natural feature to study, but it has been difficult before this method.” “The technical problems to get this working were significant and it is still incredible for me to think that they pulled this off,” Kirschner adds. “I expect that when it is … into biology labs it will be useful for many problems in cancer, metabolism, cell death, and cell stress.” The research was sponsored, in part, by the U.S. Army Research Office, the Koch Institute and Dana Farber/Harvard Cancer Center Bridge Project, the National Science Foundation, and the National Cancer Institute.

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