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Warner R.D.,CSIRO | Thompson J.M.,University of New England of Australia | Polkinghorne R.,Murrurundi | Gutzke D.,Meat and Livestock Australia | Kearney G.A.,36 Paynes Road
Animal Production Science | Year: 2014

Few consumer data are available on the effects of high rigor temperatures on eating quality of different muscles in the beef carcass. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of high rigor temperature (heat-toughening) on the consumer and quality traits of two beef muscles. A dataset containing consumer eating-quality scores for 3865 striploins (m. longissimus lumborum) and 734 rumps (gluteus medius) was analysed. Temperature at pH 6 (temp@pH6) was calculated for the striploin and carcasses with a temp@pH6 of >35°C were classified as high rigor temperature (heat-toughened) carcasses. For short ageing periods (1-7 days), high rigor temperature striploins were assessed, by a consumer panel, as being more tender with higher overall liking and higher (more liked) flavour and juiciness, than were striploins entering rigor at a lower temperature. Beyond 14 days of ageing, the high rigor temperature striploins showed minimal improvement in tenderness and the other eating-quality attributes also showed minimal improvements. The consumer scores for tenderness, juiciness, flavour and overall liking for the rump decreased with increasing rigor temperature. High rigor temperature striploins were scored, by trained graders, to have a higher proportion of coarser and softer texture and paler colour. Carcasses defined as 'high rigor temperature' will show minimal ageing after extended storage and, at grading, have a higher proportion with pale colour and softer, coarser texture compared to lower rigor temperature carcasses. In conclusion, methods to reduce high rigor temperatures in beef carcasses would improve the acceptability of beef. © 2014 CSIRO. Source

Kiermeier A.,South Australian Research And Development Institute | Mellor G.,CSIRO | Barlow R.,CSIRO | Jenson I.,Meat and Livestock Australia
Journal of Food Protection | Year: 2011

The aims of this work were to determine the distribution and concentration of Escherichia coli O157 in lots of beef destined for grinding (manufacturing beef) that failed to meet Australian requirements for export, to use these data to better understand the performance of sampling plans based on the binomial distribution, and to consider alternative approaches for evaluating sampling plans. For each of five lots from which E. coli O157 had been detected, 900 samples from the external carcass surface were tested. E. coli O157 was not detected in three lots, whereas in two lots E. coli O157 was detected in 2 and 74 samples. For lots in which E. coli O157 was not detected in the present study, the E. coli O157 level was estimated to be <12 cells per 27.2-kg carton. For the most contaminated carton, the total number of E. coli O157 cells was estimated to be 813. In the two lots in which E. coli O157 was detected, the pathogen was detected in 1 of 12 and 2 of 12 cartons. The use of acceptance sampling plans based on a binomial distribution can provide a falsely optimistic view of the value of sampling as a control measure when applied to assessment of E. coli O157 contamination in manufacturing beef. Alternative approaches to understanding sampling plans, which do not assume homogeneous contamination throughout the lot, appear more realistic. These results indicate that despite the application of stringent sampling plans, sampling and testing approaches are inefficient for controlling microbiological quality. Source

Geesink G.,University of New England of Australia | Robertson J.,University of New England of Australia | Ball A.,Meat and Livestock Australia
Meat Science | Year: 2015

This study evaluated the effect of 7days of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP: 80% O2, 20% CO2) or skin packaging (no oxygen) of beef M. longissimus steaks after 1 or 7days of ageing in vacuum on objective and sensory meat quality traits and degradation of desmin. Shear force was negatively affected by MAP after both 1 and 7days of ageing in vacuum (P<0.005). Sensory evaluation of grilled steaks revealed significantly negative effects of MAP on sensory traits, resulting in an overall decrease of 8 points in the Meat Standards Australia (MSA) eating quality score (MQ4). Desmin degradation was not affected by packaging method, suggesting that the toughening effect of high-oxygen MAP is not due to inhibition of postmortem proteolysis. The results of this study and others suggest that packaging method should be incorporated as a variable in the MSA grading system. Further research to quantify the impact of oxidative cross-linking of proteins on tenderness appears warranted. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

News Article
Site: http://phys.org/biology-news/

The project led by The University of Western Australia in collaboration with Department of Agriculture and Food, Murdoch University and the Kazusa DNA Research Institute, will revolutionise the development of new and improved forage legumes, which underpin the State's $1.8 billion livestock industry. Clovers are widely grown around the world as forage legumes for livestock and they add nitrogen to the soil which assists crop production. Sub clover is the most important annual pasture legume in Australia, sown across an estimated 29 million hectares of agricultural land. UWA Molecular Biologist Dr Parwinder Kaur said the challenge was not only to determine the sequence of sub clover DNA but to understand the genes from a functional point of view. "The changes provide a breakthrough for breeding of future sub clovers which will increase agriculture production by increasing the health of the soil. "This is the first genome sequence published for an annual clover and describes 85.4 per cent of the sub clover genome and contains 42,706 genes. It represents years of research and a commitment to creating new knowledge that will feed our future." Department senior pasture breeder and UWA Adjunct Associate Professor Phil Nichols said the discovery had important benefits for the agriculture industry. "This work will allow the development of DNA markers that are closely associated with genes controlling traits of interest, which can be used in breeding programs to markedly improve selection efficiency, particularly for traits difficult to measure in the field or glasshouse," Dr Nichols said. "Such traits include resistance to redlegged earth mites and important diseases, hardseededness, tolerance to false breaks, early season growth under cool temperatures, phosphorus use efficiency, phtyo-oestrogen content, methanogenic potential in the rumen, flowering time and other traits related to biomass production." The work was funded through the Science and Innovation Award by Australian Department of Agriculture and Water Resources, Meat and Livestock Australia and the Australian Research Council. UWA Centre for Plant Genetics and Breeding Director Professor William Erskine said this understanding of the sub clover genome would also aid breeding programs of other important pasture legumes with more complex genomes, such as white and red clovers, annual medics and lucerne. The research paper has been published in the prestigious Nature journal Scientific Reports. More information: Hideki Hirakawa et al. Draft genome sequence of subterranean clover, a reference for genus Trifolium, Scientific Reports (2016). DOI: 10.1038/srep30358

Small A.H.,CSIRO | Jenson I.,Meat and Livestock Australia | Kiermeier A.,South Australian Research And Development Institute | Sumner J.,Meat and Livestock Australia
Journal of Food Protection | Year: 2012

When vacuum-packed striploins and cube rolls processed by six Australian establishments were stored at -0.5°C to determine their shelf life, all product was acceptable organoleptically for at least 26 weeks. The aerobic plate counts and counts of lactic acid bacteria over the storage period did not accord with those established by previous studies, i.e., stationary phase attained at 7 to 8 log CFU/cm2 after 5 to 8 weeks followed by the development of negative sensory characteristics around 12 to 16 weeks. Rather, counts rarely progressed to 7 log CFU/cm2 even after 30 weeks. It is believed that the combined effects of meat pH, temperature, and CO2 concentration may combine to create conditions in which little or no growth occurs. Copyright ©, International Association for Food Protection. Source

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