Meakins Christie Laboratories


Meakins Christie Laboratories

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Lavoie-Lamoureux A.,University of Montréal | Beauchamp G.,University of Montréal | Quessy S.,University of Montréal | Martin J.G.,Meakins Christie Laboratories | Lavoie J.-P.,University of Montréal
Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology | Year: 2012

Objective: To compare innate immune responses of peripheral blood leukocytes from healthy and asymptomatic heaves-affected horses. Animals: Heaves-affected horses (n= 5-6) and healthy controls (n= 4-5) kept under low dust environments (pasture or shavings and pellets). Methods: Blood neutrophil and neutrophil-depleted cell populations were isolated using MACS system. Cells were incubated with or without bacterial products (lipopolysaccharide (LPS), 100. ng/mL and fMLP, 5. ng/mL, 5. h). Cytokine (IL-1β, IL-8, TNF, IL-4, INFγ and IL-10) and receptor (TLR4) mRNA expression was assessed by qPCR. TNF concentration in culture supernatants and serum samples was assessed using equine specific ELISA. Apoptotic rate of resting and stimulated neutrophils was assessed by flow cytometry using AnnexinV and 7-AAD (18. h) and correlated with early pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in the same cells (5. h). Results: Stimulation with bacterial-derived products resulted in overexpression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in both neutrophils (IL-1β and TNF) and neutrophil-depleted leukocytes (IL-1β and IL-8) from heaves-affected horses. Neutrophil survival (18. h) was associated with their early TNF expression, but not IL-8. Neutrophil-depleted leukocytes from these horses also had significantly increased basal TNF mRNA levels. Serum TNF concentration was also significantly higher in heaves-affected horses compared to healthy horses kept in similar environment. Conclusions: Altered innate immune response to bacterial products is observable ex vivo in peripheral blood leukocytes from asymptomatic heaves-susceptible horses and is associated with high serum TNF concentration. It remains to be determined if this phenomenon is caused by intrinsic differences in innate immune responses or to cellular priming caused by systemic inflammation. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Lafferty E.I.,Meakins Christie Laboratories | Wiltshire S.A.,McGill University | Angers I.,McGill University | Vidal S.M.,McGill University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Innate Immunity | Year: 2015

Coxsackievirus strain B serotype 3 (CVB3)-induced myocarditis is an important human disease that causes permanent tissue damage and can lead to death from acute infection or long-term morbidity caused by chronic inflammation. The timing and magnitude of immune activation following CVB3 infection can mediate a positive host outcome or increase tissue pathology. To better elucidate the role of endosomal Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling in acute CVB3 infection, we studied mice with a loss-of-function mutation, known as Letr for 'loss of endosomal TLR response', in Unc93b1, which is a chaperone protein for TLR3, TLR7 and TLR9. Using Unc93b1Letr/Letr mice, we determined that Unc93b1-dependent TLR activation was essential for the survival of acute CVB3-induced myocarditis. We also determined that a lack of endosomal TLR signaling was associated with a higher viral load in target organs and that it increased inflammation, necrosis and fibrosis in cardiac tissue. Loss of Unc93b1 function was also associated with increased cardiac expression of Ifn-b and markers of tissue injury and fibrosis including Lcn2 and Serpina3n early after CVB3 infection. These observations establish a significant role for Unc93b1 in the regulation of the host inflammatory response to CVB3 infection and also reveal potential mediators of host tissue damage that merit further investigation in acute viral myocarditis. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Behr M.A.,McGill University | Behr M.A.,ll International Center | Divangahi M.,McGill University | Divangahi M.,ll International Center | Divangahi M.,Meakins Christie Laboratories
Current Opinion in Microbiology | Year: 2015

Mycobacterium tuberculosis contributed to the discovery of delayed-type hypersensitivity and cell-mediated immunity. However, the biochemical basis for the immunogenicity of the mycobacterial cell wall has until recently remained unknown. Recent findings: Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2 (NOD2) responds to bacterial peptidolycan-derived muramyl dipeptide (MDP). Whereas most bacteria produce N-acetyl MDP, mycobacteria produce an unusual modified form of MDP, called N-glycolyl MDP. Disruption of N-glycolyl MDP synthesis in mycobacteria greatly diminishes the contribution of NOD2 to mycobacterial sensing. Additionally, N-glycolyl MDP is more potent and efficacious than N-acetyl MDP at inducing innate responses and T cell-mediated immunity. Summary: The sensitivity of NOD2 to the mycobacterial peptidoglycan may link the natural history of both innate and adaptive immunity to mycobacterial infection. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Robins S.,Meakins Christie Laboratories | Roussel L.,Meakins Christie Laboratories | Schachter A.,Meakins Christie Laboratories | Risse P.-A.,Meakins Christie Laboratories | And 5 more authors.
American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology | Year: 2011

Severe or refractory asthma affects 5 to 15% of all patients with asthma, but is responsible for more than half of the health burden associated with the disease. Severe asthma is characterized by a dramatic increase in smooth muscle and airway inflammation. Although glucocorticoids are the mainstay of treatment in asthma, they are unable to fully control the disease in individuals with severe asthma. We found that airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) from individuals with severe asthma showed elevated activities of the ERK1/ERK2 and p38MAPK pathways despite treatment with oraland inhaled glucocorticoids, which increased the expression of DUSP1, a phosphatase shown to limit p38 MAPK activity. In ex vivo ASMCs, TNF-α but not IL-17A induced expression of the neutrophil chemoattractant CXCL8. Moreover, TNF-α led to up-regulation of the ERK1/ERK2 and p38 MAPKs pathways, with only the latter being sensitive to pretreatment with the glucocorticoid dexamethasone. In contrast to epithelial and endothelial cells, TNF-α - stimulated CXCL8 synthesis was dependent on ERK1/ERK2 but not on p38 MAPK.Moreover, suppressingERK1/ ERK2activationpreventedneutrophil recruitment by ASMCs, whereas suppressing p38 MAPK activity had no impact. Taken together, these results highlight the ERK1/ERK2 MAPK cascade as a novel and attractive target in severe asthma because the activation of this pathway is insensitive to the action of glucocorticoids and is involved in neutrophil recruitment, contributing the to inflammation seen in the disease.

Hepple R.T.,McGill University | Hepple R.T.,Meakins Christie Laboratories
Free Radical Biology and Medicine | Year: 2016

Both skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle are subject to marked structural and functional impairment with aging and these changes contribute to the reduced capacity for exercise as we age. Since mitochondria are involved in multiple aspects of cellular homeostasis including energetics, reactive oxygen species signaling, and regulation of intrinsic apoptotic pathways, defects in this organelle are frequently implicated in the deterioration of skeletal and cardiac muscle with aging. On this basis, the purpose of this review is to evaluate the evidence that aging causes dysfunction in mitochondria in striated muscle with a view towards drawing conclusions about the potential of these changes to contribute to the deterioration seen in striated muscle with aging. As will be shown, impairment in respiration and reactive oxygen species emission with aging are highly variable between studies and seem to be largely a consequence of physical inactivity. On the other hand, both skeletal and cardiac muscle mitochondria are more susceptible to permeability transition and this seems a likely cause of the increased recruitment of mitochondrial-mediated pathways of apoptosis seen in striated muscle. The review concludes by examining the role of degeneration of mitochondrial DNA versus impaired mitochondrial quality control mechanisms in the accumulation of mitochondria that are sensitized to permeability transition, whereby the latter mechanism is favored as the most likely cause. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.

Beaudoin T.,Meakins Christie Laboratories | Lafayette S.,McGill University | Roussel L.,Meakins Christie Laboratories | Berube J.,Meakins Christie Laboratories | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Infectious Diseases | Year: 2013

Biofilm microcolonies of Pseudomonas aeruginosa chronically infect the airways of patients with cystic fibrosis and fuel ongoing destructive inflammation, yet the impact of the switch from planktonic to biofilm growth on host responses is poorly understood. We report that in airway epithelial cells a threshold of p38α mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation was required to trigger neutrophil recruitment, which is influenced by extrinsic and intrinsic factors. Planktonic P. aeruginosa diffusible material (PsaDM) induced stronger p38α MAPK activation as compared to biofilm PsaDM. Biofilm PsaDM activated p38α MAPK in a Toll-like receptor-independent fashion via the lasI/lasR quorum-sensing system, but this activation was insufficient to recruit neutrophils. However, in airway epithelial cells from patients with cystic fibrosis with hypersensitivity to injurious stimuli, biofilm PsaDM activated p38α MAPK strongly enough to recruit neutrophils, which can contribute to lung injury. © 2013 The Author.

PubMed | McGill University and Meakins Christie Laboratories
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Biophysical journal | Year: 2015

Actin filaments propelled in vitro by groups of skeletal muscle myosin motors exhibit distinct phases of active sliding or arrest, whose occurrence depends on actin length (L) within a range of up to 1.0 m. Smooth muscle myosin filaments are exponentially distributed with 150 nm average length in vivo--suggesting relevance of the L-dependence of myosin group kinetics. Here, we found L-dependent actin arrest and sliding in in vitro motility assays of smooth muscle myosin. We perturbed individual myosin kinetics with varying, physiological concentrations of phosphate (Pi, release associated with main power stroke) and adenosine diphosphate (ADP, release associated with minor mechanical step). Adenosine triphosphate was kept constant at physiological concentration. Increasing [Pi] lowered the fraction of time for which actin was actively sliding, reflected in reduced average sliding velocity () and motile fraction (fmot, fraction of time that filaments are moving); increasing [ADP] increased the fraction of time actively sliding and reduced the velocity while sliding, reflected in reduced and increased fmot. We introduced specific Pi and ADP effects on individual myosin kinetics into our recently developed mathematical model of actin propulsion by myosin groups. Simulations matched our experimental observations and described the inhibition of myosin group kinetics. At low [Pi] and [ADP], actin arrest and sliding were reflected by two distinct chemical states of the myosin group. Upon [Pi] increase, the probability of the active state decreased; upon [ADP] increase, the probability of the active state increased, but the active state became increasingly similar to the arrested state.

PubMed | Meakins Christie Laboratories
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Clinical and experimental allergy : journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology | Year: 2011

Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) has potent anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating properties. IVIG has been utilized as a steroid-sparing agent in severe asthma, but the results of clinical trials have been conflicting.To determine whether IVIG is able to attenuate bronchial reactivity, pulmonary inflammation and T cell function using a murine model of allergic airways disease.BALB/c or C57BL/6 mice were sensitized to ovalbumin (OVA) or a phosphate-buffered saline control using local nasal sensitization, and then received five intranasal challenges on days 28-32 before sacrifice. Mice were treated intraperitoneally with either IVIG (1-2 g/kg) or equivalent human serum albumin 24 h before the first OVA challenge. Bronchial reactivity to methacholine was examined using the FlexiVent small animal ventilator. We evaluated pulmonary histology, mRNA from lung digests for T-helper type 2 (Th2)-related genes and bronchoalveolar lavage for cell counts and cytokines. Splenocytes were utilized to study OVA-induced cell proliferation, cytokine production and dendritic cell maturation.IVIG markedly attenuated the perivascular and peribronchial pulmonary inflammation, and decreased bronchial hyperresponsiveness to methacholine. IVIG treatment of splenocytes from sensitized animals diminished cellular proliferation to OVA, whereas IVIG treatment in vivo markedly attenuated OVA-driven splenocyte proliferation. This is accompanied by diminished IL-13 and TNF- levels in splenocyte culture, decreased expression of Jagged-1, increased Delta-4 and decreased GATA-3 mRNA levels, signs that IVIG has suppressed the expected Th2 response that accompanies repeated allergen exposure. Increased regulatory T cells were found in draining pulmonary lymph nodes in IVIG-treated mice but not in controls.IVIG was effective in ameliorating allergic airway disease in our model. IVIG may be a promising adjunct therapy requiring further study for patients with severe asthma.

PubMed | Meakins Christie Laboratories
Type: Comparative Study | Journal: American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine | Year: 2012

Mechanical ventilation (MV) is associated with adverse effects on the diaphragm, but the cellular basis for this phenomenon, referred to as ventilator-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction (VIDD), is poorly understood.To determine whether mitochondrial function and cellular energy status are disrupted in human diaphragms after MV, and the role of mitochondria-derived oxidative stress in the development of VIDD.Diaphragm and biceps specimens obtained from brain-dead organ donors who underwent MV (15-176 h) and age-matched control subjects were compared regarding mitochondrial enzymatic function, mitochondrial DNA integrity, lipid content, and metabolic gene and protein expression. In addition, diaphragmatic force and oxidative stress after exposure to MV for 6 hours were evaluated in mice under different conditions.In human MV diaphragms, mitochondrial biogenesis and content were down-regulated, with a more specific defect of respiratory chain cytochrome-c oxidase. Laser capture microdissection of cytochrome-c oxidase-deficient fibers revealed mitochondrial DNA deletions, consistent with damage from oxidative stress. Diaphragmatic lipid accumulation and responses of master cellular metabolic sensors (AMP-activated protein kinase and sirtuins) were consistent with energy substrate excess as a possible stimulus for these changes. In mice, induction of hyperlipidemia worsened diaphragmatic oxidative stress during MV, whereas transgenic overexpression of a mitochondria-localized antioxidant (peroxiredoxin-3) was protective against VIDD.Our data suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction lies at the nexus between oxidative stress and the impaired diaphragmatic contractility that develops during MV. Energy substrate oversupply relative to demand, resulting from diaphragmatic inactivity during MV, could play an important role in this process.

PubMed | Meakins Christie Laboratories
Type: Journal Article | Journal: American journal of physiology. Lung cellular and molecular physiology | Year: 2012

Ovalbumin (OVA) is the most frequently used allergen in animal models of asthma. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) contaminating commercial OVA may modulate the evoked airway inflammatory response to OVA. However, the effect of LPS in OVA on airway remodeling, especially airway smooth muscle (ASM) has not been evaluated. We hypothesized that LPS in commercial OVA may enhance allergen-induced airway inflammation and remodeling. Brown Norway rats were sensitized with OVA on day 0. PBS, OVA, or endotoxin-free OVA (Ef-OVA) was instilled intratracheally on days 14, 19, 24. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, lung, and intrathoracic lymph node tissues were collected 48 h after the last challenge. Immunohistochemistry for -smooth muscle actin, Periodic-Acid-Schiff staining, and real-time qPCR were performed. Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) was also measured. BAL fluid macrophages, eosinophils, neutrophils, and lymphocytes were increased in OVA-challenged animals, and macrophages and neutrophils were significantly lower in Ef-OVA-challenged animals. The ASM area in larger airways was significantly increased in both OVA and Ef-OVA compared with PBS-challenged animals. The mRNA expression of IFN- and IL-13 in lung tissues and IL-4 in lymph nodes was significantly increased by both OVA and Ef-OVA compared with PBS and were not significantly different between OVA and Ef-OVA. Monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 in BAL fluid and AHR were significantly increased in OVA but not in Ef-OVA. LPS contamination in OVA contributes to the influx of macrophages and MCP-1 increase in the airways and to AHR after OVA challenges but does not affect OVA-induced Th1 and Th2 cytokine expression, goblet cell hyperplasia, and ASM remodeling.

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