Saskatoon, Canada
Saskatoon, Canada

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Codling G.,University of Saskatchewan | Al Naggar Y.,University of Saskatchewan | Al Naggar Y.,Tanta University | Giesy J.P.,University of Saskatchewan | And 5 more authors.
Chemosphere | Year: 2016

Neonicotinoid insecticides (NIs) and their transformation products were detected in honey, pollen and honey bees, (Apis mellifera) from hives located within 30 km of the City of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. Clothianidin and thiamethoxam were the most frequently detected NIs, found in 68 and 75% of honey samples at mean concentrations of 8.2 and 17.2 ng g-1 wet mass, (wm), respectively. Clothianidin was also found in >50% of samples of bees and pollen. Concentrations of clothianidin in bees exceed the LD50 in 2 of 28 samples, while for other NIs concentrations were typically 10-100-fold less than the oral LD50. Imidaclorpid was detected in ~30% of samples of honey, but only 5% of pollen and concentrations were


PubMed | Hong Kong Baptist University, University of Saskatchewan, Tanta University and Meadow Ridge Enterprises LTD
Type: | Journal: Chemosphere | Year: 2015

Neonicotinoid insecticides (NIs) and their transformation products were detected in honey, pollen and honey bees, (Apis mellifera) from hives located within 30 km of the City of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. Clothianidin and thiamethoxam were the most frequently detected NIs, found in 68 and 75% of honey samples at mean concentrations of 8.2 and 17.2 ng g(-1) wet mass, (wm), respectively. Clothianidin was also found in >50% of samples of bees and pollen. Concentrations of clothianidin in bees exceed the LD50 in 2 of 28 samples, while for other NIs concentrations were typically 10-100-fold less than the oral LD50. Imidaclorpid was detected in 30% of samples of honey, but only 5% of pollen and concentrations were


ALNaggar Y.,Tanta University | ALNaggar Y.,University of Saskatchewan | Vogt A.,University of Saskatchewan | Codling G.,University of Saskatchewan | And 9 more authors.
Apidologie | Year: 2015

Concentrations of 14 organophosphorus insecticides (OPs) were measured in Apis mellifera L. (European honeybee) and hive matrices (honey and bee bread). Samples were collected from seven randomly selected colonies in central Saskatchewan during the summer of 2013. LC-MS/MS was used to identify and quantify individual OP by use of a modified quick easy cheap effective rugged safe (QuEChERS) method. Diazinon, dimethoate, and chlorpyrifos-oxon were the only OPs detected in honey with mean concentrations of 0.3, 1.5, and 0.2 ng/g, wet mass (wm), respectively. Fenamiphos, chlorpyrifos, and chlorpyrifos methyl were the only OPs detected in bee bread, with mean concentrations of 0.4, 2.7, and 15.8 ng/g, wm, respectively, while ethoprop, malathion, and dichlorvos were the only OPs detected in bees with mean concentrations of 1.4, 3.7, and 889.2 ng/g, wm, respectively. Total hazard quotients (HQs), based on lethality of bees exposed to OPs in honey and pollen consumed by bees ranged from 0.01 to 0.06 and based on lethality of bees from direct exposure to OPs ranged from 0.3 to 0.4 which suggests little hazard of OPs to Saskatchewan beehives. © 2015, INRA, DIB and Springer-Verlag France.


Robertson A.J.,Meadow Ridge Enterprises Ltd | Trost B.,University of Saskatchewan | Scruten E.,University of Saskatchewan | Robertson T.,Meadow Ridge Enterprises Ltd | And 5 more authors.
Frontiers in Genetics | Year: 2014

Recent investigations associate Varroa destructor (Mesostigmata: Varroidae) parasitism and its associated pathogens and agricultural pesticides with negative effects on colony health, resulting in sporadic global declines in domestic honeybee (Apis mellifera) populations. These events have motivated efforts to develop research tools that can offer insight into the causes of declining bee health as well as identify biomarkers to guide breeding programs. Here we report the development of a bee-specific peptide array for characterizing global cellular kinase activity in whole bee extracts. The arrays reveal distinct, developmentally-specific signaling profiles between bees with differential susceptibility to infestation by Varroa mites. Gene ontology analysis of the differentially phosphorylated peptides indicates that the differential susceptibility to Varroa mite infestation does not reflect compromised immunity; rather, there is evidence for mite-mediated immune suppression within the susceptible phenotype that may reduce the ability of these bees to counter secondary viral infections. This hypothesis is supported by the demonstration of more diverse viral infections in mite-infested, susceptible adult bees. The bee-specific peptide arrays are an effective tool for understanding the molecular basis of this complex phenotype as well as for the discovery and utilization of phosphorylation biomarkers for breeding programs. © 2014 Robertson, Trost, Scruten, Robertson, Mostajeran, Connor, Kusalik, Griebel and Napper.


Efficacies of two miticides, Apivar® and Thymovar®, were evaluated as a fall treatment against V. destructor. The effect of treatment with miticides was further evaluated by monitoring both viral load and rate of indoor overwintering survival of colonies of European honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) in the vicinity of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. Forty-five colonies were randomly assigned to three treatment groups with 15 hives per group: Group 1; 2 strips of Thymovar® (thymol); Group 2; 2 strips of Apivar® (Amitraz); and Group 3; no treatment (control). Significant decreases in the rates of colony infestation (Mites per hundred bees, MPHB) by V. destructor were observed (p < 0.05) between colonies of bees treated with Apivar® in October 2013 when compared to control colonies. Efficacy of Apivar® and Thymovar® against V. destructor after treatment for 22 days were 76.5 and 26.7%, respectively. After 22 days, concentrations of the two miticides in bees were 15.4 ng amitraz/g wet mass (wm) and 64,800 ng thymol/g wm. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) in the percentage of colonies infected by deformed wing virus (DWV) and Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV) either before or after treatment with Apivar® or Thymovar® in October 2013 and 7 months post treatment in April 2014. Only the Apivar® treatment group showed IAPV infections in April 2014. The group treated with Apivar® exhibited a better overwintering rate of survival (93%), than hives treated with Thymovar® (67%). These results suggest volatile miticides like Thymovar® should be avoided in geographical areas with colder fall temperatures. © 2016 International Bee Research Association


Trademark
Meadow Ridge Enterprises Ltd. | Date: 2014-01-07

Bees; bee breeding stock.


Trademark
Meadow Ridge Enterprises Ltd. | Date: 2011-11-09

Bees; bee breeding stock.

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