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Antonides A.,University Utrecht | Schoonderwoerd A.C.,University Utrecht | Scholz G.,HAN University of Applied Sciences | Berg B.M.,Mead Johnson Pediatric Nutrition Institute | And 3 more authors.
Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience | Year: 2015

Iron deficiency is the most common nutritional deficiency in humans, affecting more than two billion people worldwide. Early-life iron deficiency can lead to irreversible deficits in learning and memory. The pig represents a promising model animal for studying such deficits, because of its similarities to humans during early development. We investigated the effects of pre-weaning dietary iron deficiency in piglets on growth, blood parameters, cognitive performance, and brain histology later in life. Four to six days after birth, 10 male sibling pairs of piglets were taken from 10 different sows. One piglet of each pair was given a 200 mg iron dextran injection and fed a control milk diet for 28 days (88 mg Fe/kg), whereas the other sibling was given a saline injection and fed an iron deficient (ID) milk diet (21 mg Fe/kg). Due to severely retarded growth of two of the ID piglets, only eight ID piglets were tested behaviorally. After dietary treatment, all piglets were fed a balanced commercial pig diet (190-240 mg Fe/kg). Starting at 7.5 weeks of age, piglets were tested in a spatial cognitive holeboard task. In this task, 4 of 16 holes contain a hidden food reward, allowing measurement of working (short-term) memory and reference (long-term) memory (RM) simultaneously. All piglets received 40-60 acquisition trials, followed by a 16-trial reversal phase. ID piglets showed permanently retarded growth and a strong decrease in blood iron parameters during dietary treatment. After treatment, ID piglets’ blood iron values restored to normal levels. In the holeboard task, ID piglets showed impaired RM learning during acquisition and reversal. Iron staining at necropsy at 12 weeks of age showed that ID piglets had fewer iron-containing cells in hippocampal regions CA1 and dentate gyrus (DG). The number of iron-containing cells in CA3 correlated positively with the average RM score during acquisition across all animals. Our results support the hypothesis that early-life iron deficiency leads to lasting cognitive deficits. The piglet as a model animal, tested in the holeboard, can be useful in future research for assessing long-term cognitive effects of early-life diets or diet-induced deficiencies. © 2015 Antonides, Schoonderwoerd, Scholz, Berg, Nordquist and van der Staay.

Woo J.G.,Cincinnati Childrens Hospital Medical Center | Herbers P.M.,Cincinnati Childrens Hospital Medical Center | McMahon R.J.,Mead Johnson Pediatric Nutrition Institute | Davidson B.S.,Perinatal Institute | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Pediatrics | Year: 2015

Objectives To evaluate international differences in the development of minimum dietary diversity (MDD) between 6 and 12 months of age. Study design Breastfed infants (115, 100, and 109 in Shanghai, Cincinnati, and Mexico City, respectively) were enrolled near birth and dietary intake assessed weekly by 24-hour recall of food frequency. Diet diversity per month from age 6-12 months was assessed as at least 4 of 7 food groups provided on the previous day. Results Across all cohorts, dietary diversity increased from 6 (31%) to 12 (92%) months of age. Shanghai infants were significantly more likely to achieve MDD than the other cohorts at each month of age. Meat/seafood accounted for a higher proportion of infant feeds in Shanghai compared with the other cohorts, and eggs were only fed in Shanghai, and proportional intake of dairy, grains, and fruit were highest in Cincinnati. Only 28% of Cincinnati infants fed >50% human milk achieved MDD between 6 and 12 months. Conclusions The proportion of infants between 6 and 12 months achieving MDD was significantly higher in Shanghai than in Mexico City or Cincinnati at all ages. Of particular concern was low dietary diversity among highly breastfed Cincinnati cohort infants, suggesting a need for greater education of breastfeeding mothers about the need to introduce a diverse complementary food diet. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Woo J.G.,Cincinnati Childrens Hospital Medical Center | Guerrero M.L.,National Institute of Medical science and Nutrition | Ruiz-Palacios G.M.,National Institute of Medical science and Nutrition | Peng Y.-M.,Fudan University | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2013

Infant feeding practices generally influence infant growth, but it is unclear how introduction of specific foods affects growth across global populations. We studied 3 urban populations in the Global Exploration of Human Milk study to determine the association between infant feeding and anthropometry at 1 y of age. Three hundred sixty-five breastfeeding mother-infant pairs (120 US, 120 China, and 125 Mexico) were recruited soon after the infant's birth. Enrollment required agreement to breastfeed ≥75% for at least 3 mo. Weekly, 24-h, food frequency data were conducted on infants for 1 y and exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) duration and timing of specific complementary food introduction were calculated. Weight and length were measured at age 1 y and anthropometry Z-scores calculated using WHO standards. Cohorts in the 3 urban populations (Shanghai, China; Cincinnati, USA; and Mexico City, Mexico) differed by median EBF duration (5, 14, and 7 wk, respectively; P ≤ 0.001), timing of introduction of meat/eggs/legumes (4.8, 9.3, and 7.0 mo, respectively; P ≤ 0.0001), and other feeding practices. By age 1 y, infants in Shanghai were heavier and longer than Cincinnati and Mexico City infants (P ≤ 0.001). Adjusting for nonfeeding covariates, the only feeding variable associated with anthropometry was EBF duration, which was modestly inversely associated with weight-for-age but not length-for-age or BMI Z-scores at 1 y. Although feeding variables differed by cohort, their impact on anthropometry differences was not consistent among cohorts. Overall, across these urban, international, breast-fed cohorts, differences in specific feeding practices did not explain the significant variation in anthropometry. © 2013 American Society for Nutrition.

Ong K.K.,University of Cambridge | Kennedy K.,University College London | Castaneda-Gutierrez E.,Nestle | Forsyth S.,DSM Martek Division | And 9 more authors.
Acta Paediatrica, International Journal of Paediatrics | Year: 2015

In preterm infants, poor postnatal growth is associated with adverse neurocognitive outcomes; conversely, rapid postnatal growth is supposedly harmful for future development of metabolic diseases. Conclusion In this systematic review, observational studies reported consistent positive associations between postnatal weight or head growth and neurocognitive outcomes; however, there was limited evidence from the few intervention studies. Evidence linking postnatal weight gain to later adiposity and other cardiovascular disease risk factors in preterm infants was also limited. © 2015 ILSI Europe. Acta Pædiatrica published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Foundation Acta Pædiatrica.

Prentice P.,University of Cambridge | Ong K.K.,University of Cambridge | Schoemaker M.H.,Mead Johnson Pediatric Nutrition Institute | Van Tol E.A.F.,Mead Johnson Pediatric Nutrition Institute | And 4 more authors.
Acta Paediatrica, International Journal of Paediatrics | Year: 2016

Aim Benefits of human breast milk (HM) in avoiding rapid infancy weight gain and later obesity could relate to its nutrient content. We tested the hypothesis that differential HM total calorie content (TCC) or macronutrient contents may be associated with infancy growth. Methods HM hindmilk samples were collected at ages 4-8 weeks from 614 mothers participating in a representative birth cohort, with repeated infancy anthropometry. HM triglyceride (fat), lipid analytes and lactose (carbohydrate) were measured by 1H-NMR, and protein content by the Dumas method. TCC and %macronutrients were determined. Results In 614 HM samples, fat content was as follows: [median(IQR)]: 2.6 (1.7-3.6) g/100 mL, carbohydrate: 8.6 (8.2-8.8) g/100 mL, protein: 1.2 (1.1-1.2) g/100 mL; TCC: 61.8 (53.7-71.3) kcal/100 mL. HM of mothers exclusively breast feeding vs. mixed feeding was more calorific with higher %fat, lower %carbohydrate and lower %protein. Higher HM TCC was associated with lower 12-months body mass index (BMI)/adiposity, and lower 3-12 months gains in weight/BMI. HM %fat was inversely related to 3-12 months gains in weight, BMI and adiposity, whereas %carbohydrate was positively related to these measures. HM %protein was positively related to 12-months BMI. Conclusion HM analysis showed wide variation in %macronutrients. Although data on milk intakes were unavailable, our findings suggest functional relevance of HM milk composition to infant growth. © 2016 The Authors. Acta Pædiatrica published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Foundation Acta Pædiatrica.

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