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Sun J.,JP Kenny Inc. | Jakl S.,MCS Kenny Inc. | Shi H.,JP Kenny Inc.
Proceedings of the International Conference on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering - OMAE | Year: 2013

A challenging problem that pipeline industry has to face in deepwater is the high energy reservoir with high pressure and high temperature. For piping, flowline, and riser, High Pressure (HP) leads to much thicker pipe wall that increases manufacturing and installation cost. High Temperature (HT) has even wider impact on design since the flowline system has to operate over a greater temperature range between non-producing situations such as installation and shut down, and the maximum production flow. Subsea tie-back to the existing floating production facility, generally named as Brown Field Development, has many engineering and financial advantages. It becomes more popular in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM), North Sea, and West African due to the economical benefits. This paper presents some of the design challenges of a deepwater subsea tie-back project, which is composed of an 8" by 12" pipe-in-pipe (PiP) flowline loop from three (3) subsea fields to a semi-submersible platform located in the GoM at a water depth of 2,000m (∼6,600ft). Some of key efforts are worth to mention: & Mitigation of thermal expansion and global buckling?bull; as facing very soft clay soil; & Transition tie-in of PiP to?bull; structure piping-a valiant strength design to meet the deepwater installation loading; &lPiP inner pipe lock-in compressive load-effect of? ?bull; flowline (non-bonded) section length variation and locked-in stress; • Tight installation target box for the separately installed structure mudmat and upper module. This paper presents the solutions that Project team has generated to address these design/installation challenges. Lessons learned from the designs and installations are also presented. Advanced analysis tool-FEA are utilized through the entire design stage, from global 3-D flowline modeling to local component strength design. Copyright © 2013 by ASME.

Eltaher A.,MCS Kenny Inc | Jafri S.,MCS Kenny Inc | Jukes P.,MCS Kenny Inc | Heiberg G.,DNV GL
Proceedings of the International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference | Year: 2012

Driven by cost, project characteristics and the need to use local technologies in offshore projects in developing countries, DNV and MCS Kenny have led a second phase of the Spiral Welded Pipe JIP, which aimed at qualifying spiral welded pipe for offshore shallow water applications. This paper focuses on the finite element (FE) study performed as part of the qualification program and aimed to investigate the response of spiral welded pipe to different loading combinations and particularly to S-lay conditions. This paper provides benchmark and guidance to designers of spiral welded pipe for offshore applications regarding its points of strength and areas that require special attention. In that, an emphasis is placed on how spiral welded pipe compares to other types of pipe more commonly used in the industry. In the paper, issues such as quality control, tolerances and loading conditions (e.g., load controlled vs. displacement controlled) and how they affect the pipe response are discussed. Detailed analysis and discussion are presented on limit states highlighted in DNVs standard for submarine pipelines (DNV OS F101), such as burst, collapse, axial tension, local buckling and combined loading. The analyses comprised nonlinear 3D FE simulations of spiral welded pipe, using Abaqus, and taking into account relevant tolerances that were likely to affect its limit states and response to loading and installation conditions. The paper touches on non-proprietary conclusions and findings of the FE study regarding the above limit states and how spiral welded pipe fairs compared to other types of pipes commonly used in offshore applications, namely seamless and UOE pipes, as predicted by codes such as DNV OS F101. The presented FE work, together with other studies of the Spiral Welded Pipe JIP, provides needed information that supports confidence in the analysis and design procedures of this type of pipe, which is less costly and more readily available in more areas of the world. Copyright © 2012 by the International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers (ISOPE).

Jukes P.,MCS Kenny Inc. | Kenny S.,Memorial University of Newfoundland | Panapitiya U.,MCS Kenny Inc. | Jafri S.,MCS Kenny Inc. | Eltaher A.,MCS Kenny Inc.
Society of Petroleum Engineers - Arctic Technology Conference 2011 | Year: 2011

A primary challenge of Arctic and harsh environment offshore field development is the protection of subsea pipelines and flowlines on the seabed. Damage from ice either through direct contact or through soil movements/pressures acting on the pipeline from ice gouging is a serious risk. Trenching and burial of pipelines in Arctic and harsh environments such as the Beaufort Sea, Chukchi Sea and the Grand Banks are considered to be the primary means of preventing damage from ice. Trenching can provide adequate protection for pipelines in Arctic areas. This paper presents the challenges associated with trenching and burial of pipelines and flowlines in Arctic and harsh environments. and discusses the state-of-the-art trenching and dredging technologies. Future equipment developments required to meet functional specifications for working in Arctic and harsh environments is then presented. Furthermore, key areas surrounding the operability of trenching and associated equipment are also discussed. This paper shows that there are a number of challenges facing trenching pipelines in arctic regions, and there are limitations of current trenching and dredging equipments. A continued effort is required by the industry to overcome a number of key issues and challenges and promote productions in Arctic and harsh environment frontiers. Copyright 2011, Offshore Technology Conference.

Jukes P.,MCS Kenny Inc. | Trocquet B.,The Mustang Group
Offshore Engineer | Year: 2012

The article discusses the potential of floating liquefied natural gas (FLNG) developments as an energy sector game changer. As demand for energy grows rapidly worldwide, natural gas will play a vital role in balancing economic growth and environmental responsibilities. LNG's popularity is primarily due to the fact that it can be transported long distances, in large quantities, at a cheaper cost than by pipeline and at a cheaper cost than alternative fuels. The steady run up in total installed costs of conventional onshore liquefaction projects is driving the market to consider alternative design solutions. Most importantly for floating LNG facilities, they are likely to be more financially competitive. FLNG can potentially offer an early start up advantage, since the majority of the facility can be built simultaneously in the controlled work environments of a shipyard and fabrication yard.

Eltaher A.,MCS Kenny Inc | Al-Showaiter A.,MCS Kenny Inc | Abdalla B.,J P Kenny Inc | Jukes P.,MCS Kenny Inc
Proceedings of the International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference | Year: 2012

In a concrete coated pipeline, differential stiffness at the field joint usually results in concentration of curvature and strain under bending conditions, such as in an over- or sag-bend during an S-lay operation or in a lateral buckling situation. Strain concentration has been observed to be particularly significant in situation with higher levels of nominal strain and can be a critical factor in verifying the pipeline safety and integrity. In a previous study, the authors illustrated the importance of 3D modeling of the field joint and accurate representation of the concrete coating material when estimating strain concentration. In this study, the authors investigate the sensitivity of estimated strain concentration to modeling of the capacity of the interface between the concrete coating and pipe steel or corrosion coating to transmit shear flow. In applications with higher bending curvature, the limited capacity of the interface causes slippage between the pipe and concrete coating and generally tends to mitigate the strain concentration effect, as observed in full scale tests. This study provides an insight into the mechanics of and interaction between the pipe and concrete coating as well as quantitative assessment of possible overestimate of resulting strain concentration should slippage between the concrete coating and pipe be neglected. Presented results of a sensitivity study offer further details of the effect of different parameters on the overestimate, thus identifying situations where more accurate modeling of concrete-pipe interface would be particularly beneficial and cost-effective. Copyright © 2012 by the International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers (ISOPE).

Eltaher A.,MCS Kenny Inc. | Al-Showaiter A.,MCS Kenny Inc. | Hossain M.K.,MCS Kenny Inc. | Jukes P.,MCS Kenny Inc.
Oil and Gas Journal | Year: 2012

The article introduces a critical depth defined as the depth of the pipe center at which a surface-shallow buried pipe stops behaving as a surface shallow buried pipe, and the opposite for deep-buried pipes. The offshore pipeline industry is trying to understand and quantify the response of pipelines under lateral buckling, with the Safebuck JIP one example of these efforts. pipe buried deeply, so that surface effects on its behavior are negligible, responds to loading in a simple infinitely symmetric manner. A surface pipe responds to loading in a more complicated manner than that of deeply buried pipe. The envelope of the soil resistance to pipe movement is not infinitely symmetric around the pipe. The trajectory of a load-controlled pipe, right after soil yielding, is likely to have a different direction than that of the load, as the direction of pipe movement will be perpendicular to the soil resistance-yield surface.

Eltaher A.,MCS Kenny Inc
Society of Petroleum Engineers - Arctic Technology Conference 2014 | Year: 2014

Application of advanced numerical modeling to simulate ice gouge events has been based mostly on partial calibration, over a narrow range of parameters, with an emphasis on free-field events. A more comprehensive and systematic approach is required to calibrate and validate numerical models. This approach will need to include physical testing and advanced numerical simulations, to achieve better understanding of underlying and constituent processes, with best results requiring collating and sharing knowledge accumulated in previous (some of it being proprietary) work. The proposed presentation will identity and discuss gaps in the knowledge and numerical modeling of ice gouge-pipe interaction currently in need to be addressed, such as high quality (e.g., centrifuge or full-scale) test data for different types of soil (e.g., sand, clay, gravel, etc.); physical testing that include pipe; development of suitable soil constitutive models that suit the level of deformation involved especially close to the mudline; validation and calibration of elements and processes in the numerical tools (e.g., soil constitutive models and the behavior of the interface between ice and soil); development of a rational simplified analytical models of ice gouging that reflects the physics involved, so it is better validated and applicable to wider ranges of conditions and parameters; and development of guideline for offshore pipeline design in ice gouge environments. Copyright 2014, Offshore Technology Conference.

Banneyake R.,MCS Kenny Inc. | Kabir Hossain M.,MCS Kenny Inc. | Eltaher A.,MCS Kenny Inc. | Nguyen T.,MCS Kenny Inc. | Jukes P.,MCS Kenny Inc.
Society of Petroleum Engineers - Arctic Technology Conference 2011 | Year: 2011

Continuously increasing energy demand combined with depleting traditional fields have pushed the industry to explore oil and gas into frontiers such as arctic regions and ultra deepwater. These areas pose new challenges to the industry in all aspects of exploration and development. In the arctic regions, subsea pipelines must be designed to survive extremely harsh conditions such as low temperatures, thermally induced fatigue, and high stresses from ice gouging. In a study supported by a recent Ice Pipe JIP, ice-soil-pipeline interactions of buried pipelines were investigated by numerical simulations using select modeling techniques. This paper presents results from this study using the Coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian (CEL) technique, and attempts to identify the important interactions between the governing parameters. Ice gouging is a major subsea pipeline safety concern in the arctic regions, in which iceberg grounding can cause large soil movements around a buried pipeline inducing excessive deformation and high stresses, severely affecting its integrity. Pipeline design in arctic regions, therefore, must account for potentially serious effects of ice gouging. Current industry knowledge of the phenomenon is limited and the subject Ice-Pipe-JIP was an effort to help enhance the understanding. It is believed that the results presented here will help pipeline engineers understand the effects and interactions of ice gouging depth, angle and width, pipeline's burial depth and soil cover, etc in clayey or sandy seabed. The results will help contribute to increased confidence in the formulation and development of arctic pipeline design best practices for the subsea pipeline engineering community, going forward. Also, the paper demonstrates CEL-based finite element analysis (FEA) as a competent and dependable numerical tool for modeling, analyzing and studying soil-structure problems with characteristic extreme large soil deformations, which are generally unamenable to more traditional Lagrangian numerical techniques. Copyright 2011, Offshore Technology Conference.

Shi H.,MCS Kenny Inc. | Sun J.,MCS Kenny Inc. | Hossain K.,MCS Kenny Inc. | Eltaher A.,MCS Kenny Inc. | Jukes P.,MCS Kenny Inc.
Proceedings of the International Conference on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering - OMAE | Year: 2011

A common issue confronted by engineers in analyzing high pressure high temperature (HPHT) pipelines for installation and operating conditions is pipe-soil interaction. For installation, a key concern is whether the soil can generate sufficient resistance to allow the pipeline to be laid on the curve. For operation, a concern is whether the pipeline structural stress can be controlled and mitigated, for the given soil condition, under conditions of thermal expansion and potential global buckling. In both scenarios, pipeline embedment is a critical parameter as it is directly related to soil resistances to the pipeline stability. Previous studies have used experimental, analytical and numerical methods to provide estimates to the pipe embedment during the laying operation. The recently developed Coupled Eulerian-Lagrange (CEL) finite element analysis (FEA) method provides a promising numerical technique in analyzing largedeformation geotechnical problems, such as pipeline embedment analysis. This paper uses this approach, together with currently available embedment solutions, to cross-validate these methods for cohesive soils. Copyright © 2011 by ASME.

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