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Aungst T.D.,MCPHS University
Annals of Pharmacotherapy | Year: 2013

BACKGROUND: Mobile devices (eg, smartphones, tablet computers) have become ubiquitous and subsequently there has been a growth in mobile applications (apps). Concurrently, mobile devices have been integrated into health care practice due to the availability and quality of medical apps. These mobile medical apps offer increased access to clinical references and point-of-care tools. However, there has been little identification of mobile medical apps suitable for the practice of pharmacy. OBJECTIVE: To address the shortage of recommendations of mobile medical apps for pharmacists in daily practice. DATA SOURCES: Mobile medical apps were identified via the iTunes and Google Play Stores via the "Medical" app categories and key word searches (eg, drug information, medical calculators). In addition, reviews provided by professional mobile medical app review websites were used to identify apps. STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: Mobile medical apps were included if they had been updated in the previous 3 months, were available in the US, used evidence-based information or literature support, had dedicated app support, and demonstrated stability. Exclusion criteria included apps that were not available in English, had advertisement bias, used nonreferenced sources, were available only via an institution-only subscription, and were web-based portals. DATA SYNTHESIS: Twenty-seven mobile apps were identified and reviewed that involved general pharmacy practice, including apps that involved drug references, clinical references, medical calculators, laboratory references, news and continuing medical education, and productivity. CONCLUSIONS: Mobile medical apps have a variety of features that are beneficial to pharmacy practice. Individual clinicians should consider several characteristics of these apps to determine which are suitable to incorporate into their daily practice. © 1967-2013 Harvey Whitney Books Co. All rights reserved. Source

Fongemie J.,Tufts Medical Center | Felix-Getzik E.,MCPHS University
Drugs | Year: 2015

Nebivolol is a highly selective β1-adrenergic receptor antagonist with a pharmacologic profile that differs from those of other drugs in its class. In addition to cardioselectivity mediated via β1 receptor blockade, nebivolol induces nitric oxide-mediated vasodilation by stimulating endothelial nitric oxide synthase via β3 agonism. This vasodilatory mechanism is distinct from those of other vasodilatory β-blockers (carvedilol, labetalol), which are mediated via α-adrenergic receptor blockade. Nebivolol is approved for the treatment of hypertension in the US, and for hypertension and heart failure in Europe. While β-blockers are not recommended within the current US guidelines as first-line therapy for treatment of essential hypertension, nebivolol has shown comparable efficacy to currently recommended therapies in lowering peripheral blood pressure in adults with hypertension with a very low rate of side effects. Nebivolol also has beneficial effects on central blood pressure compared with other β-blockers. Clinical data also suggest that nebivolol may be useful in patients who have experienced erectile dysfunction while on other β-blockers. Here we review the pharmacological profile of nebivolol, the clinical evidence supporting its use in hypertension as monotherapy, add-on, and combination therapy, and the data demonstrating its positive effects on heart failure and endothelial dysfunction. © 2015 Springer International Publishing Switzerland. Source

Goldman J.,MCPHS University | White J.R.,Washington State University
Annals of Pharmacotherapy | Year: 2015

Objective: To describe the studies evaluating the efficacy and safety of new insulin glargine 300 U/mL (Gla-300) as a basal insulin in the treatment of type 1 (T1DM) and type 2 (T2DM) diabetes mellitus. Data Sources: A literature search of MEDLINE was conducted (January 2008-June 2015) using the terms U300, Gla-300, and insulin glargine 300 units/mL and supplemented with congress abstracts published in 2014 and 2015. Study Selection and Data Extraction: All English language studies assessing the efficacy and/or safety of Gla-300 were evaluated. Data Synthesis: The efficacy and safety of once-daily Gla-300 has been compared with insulin glargine 100 U/mL (Gla-100) in the EDITION trials, 6 phase-3, multinational, open-label studies in T1DM and T2DM. Across these studies, Gla-300 consistently demonstrated glycemic control comparable to Gla-100; a mean (standard error) change in glycated hemoglobin A1c of −1.02% (0.03) with both Gla-100 (n = 1235) and Gla-300 (n = 1239) was seen in a patient-level meta-analysis. Gla-300 was associated with comparable or reduced nocturnal hypoglycemia compared with Gla-100; the relative risk for nocturnal hypoglycemia with Gla-300 versus Gla-100 was 0.75 (95% CI = 0.68 to 0.83) in a patient-level meta-analysis. There is also some evidence for less weight gain with Gla-300 compared with Gla-100, despite a higher insulin dose. Gla-300 was well tolerated, with the number of adverse events being comparable to that with Gla-100. Conclusions: These results suggest that Gla-300 may have a place as an alternative, long-acting basal insulin for patients with T1DM or T2DM, with the possibility for improved tolerability. © The Author(s) 2015. Source

Goldman-Levine J.D.,MCPHS University
Annals of Pharmacotherapy | Year: 2015

Objective: Consensus on combination options for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) unable to use metformin is lacking. This review summarizes data describing–non-metformin based combination therapy. Data Sources: PubMed searches (January 1990 to August 2014) were conducted with terms for newer drug therapies alone and with the term combination; filters were applied for Clinical Trial, Meta Analysis, and English language. Study Selection and Data Extraction: Results were reviewed for multicenter, randomized controlled trials of non-metformin–based combination therapy conducted in the past 5 years and specific to the US or multinational populations. Data Synthesis: Although multiple injectable and oral agents have been studied in combination with metformin for management of T2DM, data are more limited for combinations without metformin. Combinations of incretins (injectable glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists or oral dipeptidyl peptidase-4 [DPP-4] inhibitors) with a sulfonylurea, thiazolidinedione, or insulin are well studied and provide greater glucose-lowering efficacy than monotherapy. Incretins are associated with a low risk of hypoglycemia when used as monotherapy; the dosage of sulfonylurea or insulin should be reduced when used in combination. Newer studies are investigating the combined use of an oral sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor and a DPP-4 inhibitor. In a recent study, reductions in glycated hemoglobin (A1C) of 1.1% to 1.2% and reduced weight with no additive risk of hypoglycemia were observed. Conclusions: Selecting the most appropriate combination therapy for patients with T2DM requires balancing clinical benefits with the risks, such as weight gain and hypoglycemia. Treatment approaches should be individualized for vulnerable patient populations for whom metformin is not appropriate. © The Author(s) 2015 Source

Patel D.,MCPHS University
Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental | Year: 2015

In the last 30 years, obesity has rapidly increased and obesity-related comorbidities have surged. Once considered to be a problem only in developed nations, obesity has become a global epidemic. Consequently, the costs associated with managing overweight and obesity worldwide are astronomical. The objective of this mini-review is to provide an overview of current options available for obesity management, with a focus on anti-obesity pharmacotherapies. The impact of weight loss on improving obesity-related comorbidities and risk factors has been well documented. Although established clinical guidelines suggest comprehensive lifestyle modification to induce weight loss, many patients do not respond to lifestyle interventions and may not qualify for bariatric surgery. For these patients, pharmacotherapy may serve as a therapeutic option. Several anti-obesity pharmacotherapies, such as phentermine, are indicated for short-term use and are not required to demonstrate clinically meaningful weight loss (i.e., < 5%). For long-term weight management, the FDA has approved 5 agents so far - orlistat, lorcaserin, phentermine/topiramate, naltrexone/bupropion, and liraglutide. These drugs have shown efficacy in enabling patients to achieve clinically meaningful weight loss and improving cardiometabolic parameters. Healthcare practitioners can help alleviate the obesity epidemic by tailoring these pharmacotherapies based on individual needs, comorbidities, and associated drug safety concerns. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. Source

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