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Hamilton, Canada

McMaster University is a public research university located in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. The main campus is located on 121 hectares of land in the residential neighbourhood of Westdale, adjacent to Hamilton's Royal Botanical Gardens. The university operates six academic faculties: the DeGroote School of Business, Engineering, Health science, Humanities, Social Science, and Science. It is a member of the U15, a group of research-intensive universities in Canada.The university bears the name of Honourable William McMaster, a prominent Canadian Senator and banker who bequeathed C$900,000 to the founding of the university. McMaster University was incorporated under the terms of an act of the Legislative Assembly of Ontario in 1887, merging the Toronto Baptist College with Woodstock College. It opened in Toronto in 1890. Inadequate facilities and the gift of land in Hamilton prompted the institution to relocate in 1930. McMaster was controlled by the Baptist Convention of Ontario and Quebec until it became a privately chartered, publicly funded non-denominational institution in 1957.The university is co-educational, and has over 24,500 undergraduate and nearly 4,000 post-graduate students. Alumni and former students of the university can be found all across Canada and in 140 countries around the world. Notable alumni include government officials, academics, business leaders and two Nobel laureates. The university ranked 4th among Canadian universities and 92nd in the world according to the 2013-2014 Times Higher Education World University Rankings, 4th among Canadian universities and 90th in the world according to the 2014 Academic Ranking of World Universities, and 6th among Canadian universities and 113th in the world according to the 2014 QS World University Rankings. In addition, the McMaster University Medical School was ranked 1st in Canada and 14th in the world for clinical medicine by Times Higher Education in 2013. The McMaster athletic teams are known as the Marauders, and are members of the Canadian Interuniversity Sport. Wikipedia.

O'Donnell M.,McMaster University
European heart journal | Year: 2012

Cognitive impairment may increase the risk of all cardiovascular (CV) events. We prospectively evaluated the independent association between Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score and myocardial infarction, stroke, hospital admission for heart failure and mortality, and their CV composite (major CV events), in a large high-risk CV population. Mini-Mental State Examination was recorded at baseline in 30 959 individuals enrolled into two large parallel trials of patients with prior cardiovascular disease or high-risk diabetes and followed for a median of 56 months. We used a Cox regression model to determine the association between MMSE score and incident CV events and non-CV mortality, adjusted for age, sex, education, history of vascular events, dietary factors, blood pressure, smoking, glucose, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, CV medications, exercise, alcohol intake pattern, depression, and psychosocial stress. Patients were categorized into four groups based on baseline MMSE; 30 (reference), 29-27, 26-24, and <24. Compared with patients with an MMSE of 30 (n = 9624), those with scores of 29-27 [n = 13 867; hazard ratio (HR) 1.08; 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.01-1.16], 26-24 (n = 4764; HR: 1.15; 95% CI: 1.05-1.26) and <24 (n = 2704; HR: 1.35; 95% CI: 1.21-1.50) had a graded increase in the risk of major vascular events (P < 0.0001). Mini-Mental State Examination score was significantly associated with each of the individual components of the composite, except myocardial infarction. There was also no association between baseline MMSE and hospitalization for unstable or new angina. Within MMSE domains, impairments in orientation to place (HR: 1.52; 1.25-1.85), attention-calculation (HR: 1.10; 1.02-1.18), recall (HR: 1.10; 1.04-1.16), and design copy (HR: 1.15; 1.06-1.24) were the most predictive of major vascular events and mortality. The magnitude of increased risk of CV events associated with an MMSE <24 was similar to a previous history of stroke. In people at increased CV risk, impairments on baseline cognitive testing are associated with a graded increase in the risk of stroke, congestive heart failure, and CV death, but not coronary events. An MMSE score of <24 increased CV disease risk to the same extent as a previous stroke. Source

Wright G.D.,McMaster University
Current Opinion in Microbiology | Year: 2010

The emergence of resistance to all classes of antibiotics in previously susceptible bacterial pathogens is a major challenge to infectious disease medicine. The origin of the genes associated with resistance has long been a mystery. There is a growing body of evidence that is demonstrating that environmental microbes are highly drug resistant. The genes that make up this environmental resistome have the potential to be transferred to pathogens and indeed there is some evidence that at least some clinically relevant resistance genes have originated in environmental microbes. Understanding the extent of the environmental resistome and its mobilization into pathogenic bacteria is essential for the management and discovery of antibiotics. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Crane J.D.,McMaster University
Science translational medicine | Year: 2012

Massage therapy is commonly used during physical rehabilitation of skeletal muscle to ameliorate pain and promote recovery from injury. Although there is evidence that massage may relieve pain in injured muscle, how massage affects cellular function remains unknown. To assess the effects of massage, we administered either massage therapy or no treatment to separate quadriceps of 11 young male participants after exercise-induced muscle damage. Muscle biopsies were acquired from the quadriceps (vastus lateralis) at baseline, immediately after 10 min of massage treatment, and after a 2.5-hour period of recovery. We found that massage activated the mechanotransduction signaling pathways focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), potentiated mitochondrial biogenesis signaling [nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α)], and mitigated the rise in nuclear factor κB (NFκB) (p65) nuclear accumulation caused by exercise-induced muscle trauma. Moreover, despite having no effect on muscle metabolites (glycogen, lactate), massage attenuated the production of the inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and reduced heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) phosphorylation, thereby mitigating cellular stress resulting from myofiber injury. In summary, when administered to skeletal muscle that has been acutely damaged through exercise, massage therapy appears to be clinically beneficial by reducing inflammation and promoting mitochondrial biogenesis. Source

Higgs P.G.,McMaster University
Nature Reviews Genetics | Year: 2014

The RNA World concept posits that there was a period of time in primitive Earth's history — about 4 billion years ago — when the primary living substance was RNA or something chemically similar. In the past 50 years, this idea has gone from speculation to a prevailing idea. In this Review, we summarize the key logic behind the RNA World and describe some of the most important recent advances that have been made to support and expand this logic. We also discuss the ways in which molecular cooperation involving RNAs would facilitate the emergence and early evolution of life. The immediate future of RNA World research should be a very dynamic one. © 2014 Nature Publishing Group, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited. All Rights Reserved. Source

Notch signaling regulates several cellular processes including cell fate decisions and proliferation in both invertebrates and mice. However, comparatively less is known about the role of Notch during early human development. Here, we examined the function of Notch signaling during hematopoietic lineage specification from human pluripotent stem cells of both embryonic and adult fibroblast origin. Using immobilized Notch ligands and small interfering RNA to Notch receptors we have demonstrated that Notch1, but not Notch2, activation induced hairy and enhancer of split 1 (HES1) expression and generation of committed hematopoietic progenitors. Using gain- and loss-of-function approaches, this was shown to be attributed to Notch-signaling regulation through HES1, which dictated cell fate decisions from bipotent precursors either to the endothelial or hematopoietic lineages at the clonal level. Our study reveals a previously unappreciated role for the Notch pathway during early human hematopoiesis, whereby Notch signaling via HES1 represents a toggle switch of hematopoietic vs endothelial fate specification. Source

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