McMaster Institute of Urology

Hamilton, Canada

McMaster Institute of Urology

Hamilton, Canada
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Bhan S.N.,McMaster University | Pautler S.E.,University of Western Ontario | Shayegan B.,McMaster Institute of Urology | Voss M.D.,McMaster University | And 2 more authors.
Annals of Surgical Oncology | Year: 2013

Background: Patients with a cortical small (≤4 cm) renal mass often are not candidates for or choose not to undergo surgery. The optimal management strategy for such patients is unclear. Methods: A decision-analytic Markov model was developed from the perspective of a third party payer to compare the quality-adjusted life expectancy and lifetime costs for 67-year-old patients with a small renal mass undergoing premanagement decision biopsy, immediate percutaneous radiofrequency ablation or percutaneous cryoablation (without premanagement biopsy), or active surveillance with serial imaging and subsequent ablation if needed. Results: The dominant strategy (most effective and least costly) was active surveillance with subsequent cryoablation if needed. On a quality-adjusted and discounted basis, immediate cryoablation resulted in a similar life expectancy (3 days fewer) but cost $3,010 more. This result was sensitive to the relative rate of progression to metastatic disease. Strategies that employed radiofrequency ablation had decreased quality-adjusted life expectancies (82-87 days fewer than the dominant strategy) and higher costs ($3,231-$6,398 more). Conclusions: Active surveillance with delayed percutaneous cryoablation, if needed, may be a safe and cost-effective alternative to immediate cryoablation. The uncertainty in the relative long-term rate of progression to metastatic disease in patients managed with active surveillance versus immediate cryoablation needs to be weighed against the higher cost of immediate cryoablation. A randomized trial is needed directly to evaluate the nonsurgical management of patients with a small renal mass, and could be limited to the most promising strategies identified in this analysis. © 2013 Society of Surgical Oncology.


PubMed | Juravinski Cancer Center, São Paulo State University, McMaster Institute of Urology, Hospital do Coracao HCOR and Reproductive Medicine Partners of New York
Type: Journal Article | Journal: JBRA assisted reproduction | Year: 2016

The aim of this study as to analyze published evidence regarding the effectiveness of aromatase inhibitor therapy on improving spermatogenesis in infertile men. We carried out a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. The date of the most recent search was October 4, 2015. Two authors independently selected relevant clinical trials, assessing their methodological quality and extracting data. Three studies were included in this review with a total of 100 participants; however, we were able to include data from only 54 participants in the analysis. In the representation of meta-analysis with a single study comparing testolactone versus placebo, related to the hormone concentrations, there was a statistically significance difference favoring the use of testolactone for Luteinizing Hormone (LH); Estrogen (E2); free Testosterone (free T); free Estrogen (free E2); 17-Hydroxyprogesterone (17OHP); prolactin (PRL). In another analysis from a single study comparing letrozole versus anastrozole, there was also a statistically significance difference favoring the use of letrozole for the increase in both the sperm count and LH. There is only low quality evidence regarding the effectiveness of aromatase inhibitor therapy in infertile men. Further trials are needed with standardized interventions and outcomes.


Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is an age-related phenomenon associated with prostatic enlargement and bladder outlet obstruction that can cause significant lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). These LUTS have a negative impact on an individual's quality of life, which is why treatment of symptomatic BPH has become a major priority. Although surgical interventions exist for treating BPH, pharmacological therapies are often preferred due to their minimal invasiveness and high degree of effectiveness. The three classes of drugs approved for treating BPH include α-blockers, 5-α-reductase inhibitors (5-ARIs) and phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE-5) inhibitors. Individually, each class of drug has been studied and shown to improve symptom relief through a variety of different mechanisms. A more recent focus has been on the development of combinatorial therapies that combine classes of drugs in order to provide maximal benefit. The mTOPS and CombAT studies were the first of their kind to examine whether the combination of 5-ARIs and α-blockers was more effective than monotherapy alone. Both studies found similar results in that the combinatorial therapy was superior to monotherapy. Over the last decade other combinatorial therapies have been at the forefront of investigation. One in particular is the combination of tadalafil, a PDE-5 inhibitor, with finasteride, a 5-ARI. Studies have shown that the combination of tadalafil and finasteride is a safe, effective, and well tolerated treatment for BPH. Evidence suggests that this combination may be particularly effective in reducing treatment-related sexual adverse events associated with 5-ARI treatments. The following review will explore in detail the current evidence surrounding treatment of BPH LUTS using tadalafil and finasteride. © 2016 The Author(s).


Kapoor A.,McMaster Institute of Urology | Lambe S.,McMaster Institute of Urology | Kling A.L.,McMaster University | Piercey K.R.,McMaster Institute of Urology | Whelan P.J.,McMaster Institute of Urology
Urology Annals | Year: 2011

Purpose : Data of laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (LDN) with multiple renal arteries for donor and recipient outcomes were reviewed, with the aim of clarifying whether the laparoscopic approach is safe in the presence of multiple renal arteries. Materials and Methods : All donor nephrectomies performed at our institution from 2004 to 2008 were reviewed retrospectively. Results were compared between LDN kidneys with multiple arteries and those with a single renal artery. Results : Out of 171 donor nephrectomies, 21 (12%) were performed for kidneys with multiple renal arteries. All of the 150 (88%) donor nephrectomies in the single vessel group were performed laparoscopically. In the multiple artery group, 9 (43%) underwent an open procedure while 12 (57%) underwent a laparoscopic procedure. The warm ischemia time was longer in the multiple artery group than the single artery group, but the difference was not statistically significant (4.25±0.87 min vs. 4.12±0.95 min, respectively). Regarding transplant recipients, the vascular anastomosis time was similar in both groups (30±4.6 min vs. 29.5±3.7 min). The operative blood loss in the transplant recipients was significantly more in the multiple artery group compared to the single artery group (339±292 ml and 130.7±44.8 ml, respectively; P=0.03). The recipient renal function was similar for both the groups at postoperative day 7, 1 month, and at 1 year. Conclusion : The data support the fact that the laparoscopic approach to donor nephrectomy in the presence of multiple renal arteries can be performed safely with adequate laparoscopic experience.


PubMed | McMaster University and McMaster Institute of Urology
Type: Review | Journal: Therapeutic advances in urology | Year: 2016

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is an age-related phenomenon associated with prostatic enlargement and bladder outlet obstruction that can cause significant lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). These LUTS have a negative impact on an individuals quality of life, which is why treatment of symptomatic BPH has become a major priority. Although surgical interventions exist for treating BPH, pharmacological therapies are often preferred due to their minimal invasiveness and high degree of effectiveness. The three classes of drugs approved for treating BPH include -blockers, 5--reductase inhibitors (5-ARIs) and phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE-5) inhibitors. Individually, each class of drug has been studied and shown to improve symptom relief through a variety of different mechanisms. A more recent focus has been on the development of combinatorial therapies that combine classes of drugs in order to provide maximal benefit. The mTOPS and CombAT studies were the first of their kind to examine whether the combination of 5-ARIs and -blockers was more effective than monotherapy alone. Both studies found similar results in that the combinatorial therapy was superior to monotherapy. Over the last decade other combinatorial therapies have been at the forefront of investigation. One in particular is the combination of tadalafil, a PDE-5 inhibitor, with finasteride, a 5-ARI. Studies have shown that the combination of tadalafil and finasteride is a safe, effective, and well tolerated treatment for BPH. Evidence suggests that this combination may be particularly effective in reducing treatment-related sexual adverse events associated with 5-ARI treatments. The following review will explore in detail the current evidence surrounding treatment of BPH LUTS using tadalafil and finasteride.


Wu C.,McMaster Institute of Urology | Kovac J.R.,Mens Health Center
Current Urology Reports | Year: 2016

There has recently been renewed interest in novel clinical applications of the anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) testosterone and its synthetic derivatives, particularly given with the rising popularity of testosterone supplementation therapy (TST) for the treatment of male hypogonadism. In this manuscript, we provide a brief review of the history of AAS and discuss clinical applications of two of the more well-known AAS: nandrolone and oxandrolone. Both agents exhibit favorable myotrophic/androgenic ratios and have been investigated for effectiveness in numerous disease states. We also provide a brief synopsis of selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) and postulate how these orally active, non-aromatizing, tissue-selective agents might be used in contemporary andrology. Currently, the applications of testosterone alternatives in hypogonadism are limited. However, it is tempting to speculate that these agents may one day become accepted as alternatives, or adjuncts, to the treatment of male hypogonadism. © 2016, Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Wang Y.,McMaster Institute of Urology | Dason S.,McMaster Institute of Urology | Shayegan B.,McMaster Institute of Urology
Canadian Journal of Urology | Year: 2016

Abiraterone acetate (AA) is a selective irreversible inhibitor of CYP 17, a key enzyme in androgen biosynthesis. The efficacy and safety of AA in improving survival and quality of life in metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) has been demonstrated in two landmark clinical trials (COU-AA-301 and COU-AA-302). This article will review the rationale, pharmacology, clinical indications and contraindications, administration, and adverse effects of AA administration in mCRPC. © The Canadian Journal of Urology™.


Bansal R.K.,McMaster Institute of Urology | Kapoor A.,McMaster Institute of Urology
Journal of the Canadian Urological Association | Year: 2014

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed all transperitoneal laparoscopic nephrectomies done for polycystic kidneys at a university hospital. Our technique included three 12-mm ports with additional one or two 5-mm ports, with usage of retraction devices, such as the Jarit PEER retractor (J. Jamner Surgical Instruments, Inc, Hawthorne, NY).Introduction: We present our technique of laparoscopic nephrectomy for massive polycystic kidneys in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and review the outcome analysis of our experience.Results: In total, 39 (left 14, right 25) laparoscopic nephrectomies were performed in 32 patients (male 21, female 11). Surgical indications were varied: to create space for future renal transplant in 21 (54%), to alleviate pain in 16 (41%), to prevent recurrent urosepsis in 2 (5%), to prevent recurrent bleeding which would require transfusions in 2 (5%) and to remove a renal tumour in 1 kidney (2.5%). Four patients had surgery for more than one reason. The mean age and body mass index were 52.2 years (range: 29-72) and 26.9 kg/m2 (range: 21.6-34.0), respectively. The mean preoperative hemoglobin and serum creatinine levels were 131.6 g/L (range: 107-171) and 514 μmol/L (range: 84-923), respectively; 26 (81%) patients were on dialysis. The mean operative time and estimated blood loss were 185 minutes (range: 113-287) and 94 mL (range: 10-350), respectively. No patient required open conversion. The mean specimen size was 24.2 cm (range: 15-38); weight 1515 g (range: 412-4590) and the length of extraction incision was 9.2 cm (range: 6-13). There were 1 Grade 2 2 (2.5%), 2 Grade 3b (5%) and 1 Grade 4a-d (2.5%) complications. The mean length of stay was 4.5 days (range: 3-8).Conclusions: Our technique of laparoscopic nephrectomy for massively enlarged polycystic kidneys in ADPKD is safe and offers all the advantages of minimal access surgery, such as smaller incision, decreased estimated blood loss, excellent cosmesis and faster recovery. © 2014 Canadian Urological Association.


Ruzhynsky V.,McMaster Institute of Urology | Whelan P.,McMaster Institute of Urology
Canadian Journal of Urology | Year: 2013

Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonists, such as degarelix, are emerging as an androgen deprivation therapy primary agents in a treatment of advanced prostate cancer. The role of GnRH antagonists in management of lower urinary tract symptoms associated with prostate cancer has not been clearly established. In this report, we describe the case of a patient with locally advanced prostate cancer who presented with symptoms of urinary retention and renal failure. The use of degarelix in this patient led to a rapid reduction in the prostate-specific antigen level; however, obstructive symptoms persisted despite the use of degarelix and radiation treatment. © The Canadian Journal of Urology.


PubMed | McMaster Institute of Urology
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Canadian Urological Association journal = Journal de l'Association des urologues du Canada | Year: 2014

We present our technique of laparoscopic nephrectomy for massive polycystic kidneys in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and review the outcome analysis of our experience.We retrospectively reviewed all transperitoneal laparoscopic nephrectomies done for polycystic kidneys at a university hospital. Our technique included three 12-mm ports with additional one or two 5-mm ports, with usage of retraction devices, such as the Jarit PEER retractor (J. Jamner Surgical Instruments, Inc, Hawthorne, NY).In total, 39 (left 14, right 25) laparoscopic nephrectomies were performed in 32 patients (male 21, female 11). Surgical indications were varied: to create space for future renal transplant in 21 (54%), to alleviate pain in 16 (41%), to prevent recurrent urosepsis in 2 (5%), to prevent recurrent bleeding which would require transfusions in 2 (5%) and to remove a renal tumour in 1 kidney (2.5%). Four patients had surgery for more than one reason. The mean age and body mass index were 52.2 years (range: 29-72) and 26.9 kg/m(2) (range: 21.6-34.0), respectively. The mean preoperative hemoglobin and serum creatinine levels were 131.6 g/L (range: 107-171) and 514 mol/L (range: 84-923), respectively; 26 (81%) patients were on dialysis. The mean operative time and estimated blood loss were 185 minutes (range: 113-287) and 94 mL (range: 10-350), respectively. No patient required open conversion. The mean specimen size was 24.2 cm (range: 15-38); weight 1515 g (range: 412-4590) and the length of extraction incision was 9.2 cm (range: 6-13). There were 1 Grade 2 2 (2.5%), 2 Grade 3b (5%) and 1 Grade 4a-d (2.5%) complications. The mean length of stay was 4.5 days (range: 3-8).Our technique of laparoscopic nephrectomy for massively enlarged polycystic kidneys in ADPKD is safe and offers all the advantages of minimal access surgery, such as smaller incision, decreased estimated blood loss, excellent cosmesis and faster recovery.

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