McMaster Childrens Hospital

Hamilton, Canada

McMaster Childrens Hospital

Hamilton, Canada
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Miskovic V.,McMaster University | Schmidt L.A.,McMaster University | Schmidt L.A.,McMaster Childrens Hospital
Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews | Year: 2012

Social fearfulness is expressed on a continuum of severity from moderate distress to incapacitating fear. The present article focuses on the brain states associated with this broad dimension of social anxiety in humans. In total, 70 published studies are summarized documenting the neural correlates of social anxiety during states of rest, threat-related cognitive-affective activation, and acute symptom provocation. Neural exaggeration in limbic (amygdala) and paralimbic (insula) regions appears to be associated with functional outcomes involving increased attention for and processing of social threat. Evidence is also reviewed showing that social anxiety is characterized by atypical functional connectivity in certain brain networks. Despite a higher prevalence of social anxiety disorder among females, males have been overrepresented in the published clinical studies (constituting approximately 56% of the total participants). We evaluate the prospects of nonhuman animal models of social anxiety and discuss several promising directions for future research. The review highlights the need to adopt an integrative, network-based approach to the study of the neural substrates underlying social anxiety. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Yanover T.,McMaster Childrens Hospital | Thompson J.K.,University of South Florida
Journal of Health Psychology | Year: 2010

Three hundred and thirty-three participants rated the health and attractiveness of schematic figures varying in muscularity, adiposity, gender, and race. In general, overweight and underweight figures were rated as less healthy and attractive. However, overweight figures with high levels of muscularity were rated more highly on these dimensions than figures with less muscularity. Females assigned higher attractiveness ratings than males; African Americans provided higher ratings than Caucasians and Hispanics for female figures and lower ratings than Caucasian and Hispanic raters for male figures. Theoretical explanations and applied implications are offered. Copyright © 2010 SAGE Publications Los Angeles, London, New Delhi, Singapore and Washington DC.

Mitra S.,McMaster Childrens Hospital | Ronnestad A.,University of Oslo | Holmstrom H.,University of Oslo
Congenital Heart Disease | Year: 2013

Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in preterm infants is a controversial topic in the management of preterm neonates. There are no generally accepted guidelines for diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of PDA, and few publications have covered the whole topic or have been conclusively summarized to give a proper direction for the treating physician. Major issues remain to be clarified, both with respect to diagnosis and treatment. The definition of hemodynamic significance varies because of different use of echocardiographic criteria and uncertainty about the role of biomarkers. The detailed risks and benefits of available treatment alternatives are still under investigation. There has been a general shift in the management of PDA in preterm neonates from the "aggressive approach" to a more "conservative approach," but the effects of this strategy on morbidity in a longer time perspective are not fully known. An individualized therapeutic strategy with special emphasis on identification of hemodynamically significance seems to be the way forward. In this review we put forward the scientific background in favor of a seemingly growing body of evidence against active treatment, but we raise caution against shying away from all forms of treatment or instituting them too late. Finally, we try to integrate the current knowledge into suggestions for the management of PDA in premature infants. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Pritchard S.,BC Childrens Hospital | Cuvelier G.,Manitoba Blood and Marrow Transplant Program | Harlos M.,Winnipeg Regional Health Authority Palliative Care | Barr R.,McMaster Childrens Hospital
Cancer | Year: 2011

Adolescents and young adults (AYA) with advanced or terminal cancer have distinctive medical and psychosocial needs that may not have been adequately provided by either pediatric or adult palliative care services. A discussion group, as part of a larger workshop on AYA with cancer, was held in Toronto on March 11-13, 2010;117:-. Recommendations were as follows: Develop a specific AYA screening tool designed to detect increased anxiety or new symptoms and to initiate discussion about palliative or symptom care; Set Canadian standards for palliative care in AYA patients. These standards should be included in hospital accreditation; Involve the palliative/symptom care team early in the disease trajectory to help manage clinically important symptoms that may not be associated with imminent death; Establish specific AYA multidisciplinary palliative care teams throughout Canada that are flexible and can work in both pediatric and adult facilities, and are able to work in a "virtual" environment to support patients being cared for at home; Improve physical facilities in hospices and hospitals to meet the distinctive needs of terminally ill AYA patients; Enhance support for palliative care at home by: changing legislation to improve Compassionate Care Benefits and developing "virtual palliative care support teams". Adequate provision of AYA palliative care and symptom management services will likely confer notable benefits to AYA patients and their families, and is likely to be cost saving to the tax payer by avoiding prolonged hospitalization and promoting easier return to work for the families and caregivers. Copyright © 2011 American Cancer Society.

Leclerc A.,McMaster Childrens Hospital | Turrini T.,Hospital for Sick Children | Sherwood K.,Hospital for Sick Children | Katzman D.K.,Hospital for Sick Children | Katzman D.K.,University of Toronto
Journal of Adolescent Health | Year: 2013

Purpose Nutritional rehabilitation is an essential part of inpatient treatment for adolescents with restrictive eating disorders (ED). The purpose of this study was to examine weight gain, prevalence of refeeding syndrome, and nutritional composition of the diet in hospitalized adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN) and eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS), restrictive type, on a structured nutrition rehabilitation protocol (NRP). Methods An evidence-based NRP was implemented on the inpatient eating disorders unit at the Hospital for Sick Children in June 2011. Adolescents 12-18 years of age with AN or EDNOS, an ideal body weight (IBW) of 70% or greater, no clinical or metabolic signs of refeeding syndrome, and on their first admission were assigned to the NRP. A retrospective chart review between June 2011 and June 2012 was completed. A repeated measures analysis was used to determine the mean rate of weight gain. Mean cumulative % change in body mass index (BMI) was plotted against days to assess daily weight trajectory. Results Twenty-nine patients, mean age of 14.7 (SD ± 1.5) years, were included in the study. A total of 3.5% developed hypophosphatemia on day 1. Mean weight gain was.24 kg/day (p <.0001) and 1.7 kg/week. An increase in mean cumulative % change in BMI was observed from days 2-14. Actual caloric intake was 98%-113% of the prescribed intake. Macronutrient distribution was within acceptable limits based on dietary reference intakes. Conclusions The NRP is considered effective, efficient, and safe. Further research is needed to explore the effectiveness and safety of NRPs in other populations. © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.

Rathbone A.T.L.,University of Western Ontario | Tharmaradinam S.,McMaster Childrens Hospital | Jiang S.,McMaster University | Rathbone M.P.,McMaster University | Kumbhare D.A.,University of Toronto
Brain, Behavior, and Immunity | Year: 2015

Post-concussion syndrome is an aggregate of symptoms that commonly present together after head injury. These symptoms, depending on definition, include headaches, dizziness, neuropsychiatric symptoms, and cognitive impairment. However, these symptoms are common, occurring frequently in non-head injured controls, leading some to question the existence of post-concussion syndrome as a unique syndrome. Therefore, some have attempted to explain post-concussion symptoms as post-traumatic stress disorder, as they share many similar symptoms and post-traumatic stress disorder does not require head injury. This explanation falls short as patients with post-concussion syndrome do not necessarily experience many key symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder. Therefore, other explanations must be sought to explain the prevalence of post-concussion like symptoms in non-head injury patients. Many of the situations in which post-concussion syndrome like symptoms may be experienced such as infection and post-surgery are associated with systemic inflammatory responses, and even neuroinflammation. Post-concussion syndrome itself has a significant neuroinflammatory component. In this review we examine the evidence of neuroinflammation in post-concussion syndrome and the potential role systemic inflammation plays in post-concussion syndrome like symptoms. We conclude that given the overlap between these conditions and the role of inflammation in their etiologies, a new term, post-inflammatory brain syndromes (PIBS), is necessary to describe the common outcomes of many different inflammatory insults. The concept of post-concussion syndrome is in its evolution therefore, the new term post-inflammatory brain syndromes provides a better understanding of etiology of its wide-array of symptoms and the wide array of conditions they can be seen in. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

Webber C.E.,Hamilton Health Sciences | Barr R.D.,McMaster Childrens Hospital
Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle | Year: 2012

Background Skeletal muscle mass (SMM) can be extracted from whole-body scans obtained by X-ray-based dual-photon absorptiometry (DXA). There is a need to establish expected age-dependent values for children and adolescents. Methods Appendicular lean tissue mass (ALM) was extracted from whole-body DXA scans in 140 healthy children and adolescents (68 females and 72 males). Whole-body SMM was calculated from ALM using equations developed by Kim et al. (Am J Clin Nutr 84:1014-1020, 2006). Age-dependent patterns of increase in SMM were derived by fitting SMM values to equations that consisted of the sum of two logistic expressions, one accounting for SMM changes during growth and the other for SMM changes during puberty. Normal ranges were defined so that 95% of the SMM values were included. The reproducibility of SMM measurements was obtained from whole-body DXA scans repeated on three occasions in each of a separate group of 32 normal children with repositioning between scans. Results Normal ranges are presented as equations describing the age-dependent pattern of increase in SMM as well as population standard deviations that increased steadily with age. For 15 children below age 10, SMM reproducibility (95% CI) was 149 g (119-199 g) while for 17 children and adolescents over age 10, reproducibility was 170 g (138-223 g). Conclusion DXA-based measurements of SMM in children and adolescents are reproducible and can be expressed in terms of age-dependent Z scores. © The Author(s) 2012.

Couturier J.,McMaster Childrens Hospital | Isserlin L.,University of Western Ontario | Lock J.,Stanford University
Eating Disorders | Year: 2010

This open trial of Family-Based Treatment for Anorexia Nervosa was completed in order to assess the dissemination of this treatment, including effectiveness, fidelity, and acceptability. Fourteen adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa were recruited with mean age 14.0 ± 1.5 years (range 12-17 years). Therapists were trained using a workshop, manual and weekly supervision. Sessions were videotaped and rated for treatment fidelity. Pre- and post- treatment assessments were compared. Weight was significantly increased by an average of 7.8 kg. Dietary restraint showed significant improvement, as did interoceptive deficits and maturity fears. Of the 9 participants who had secondary amenorrhea at baseline, 8 had regained menstrual function. Treatment fidelity was rated as at least considerable 72% of the time in phase I of the treatment. Adolescents and parents found the treatment to be acceptable. This preliminary investigation of the dissemination of Family-Based Treatment for adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa indicates that this treatment is effective not only for weight restoration, but also in improving some psychological symptoms including dietary restraint, interoceptive deficits, and maturity fears. In addition, this treatment was adopted with considerable fidelity and was acceptable to adolescents and parents. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Sherlock M.E.,McMaster Childrens Hospital | Griffiths A.M.,University of Toronto
Current Gastroenterology Reports | Year: 2012

Pediatric inflammatory bowel disease encompasses a spectrum of disease phenotype, severity, and responsiveness to treatment. Intestinal healing rather than merely symptom control is an especially important therapeutic goal in young patients, given the potential for growth impairment as a direct effect of persistent chronic inflammation and the long life ahead, during which other disease complications may occur. Corticosteroids achieve rapid symptom control, but alternate steroid-sparing strategies with greater potential to heal the intestine must be rapidly adopted. Exclusive enteral nutrition is an alternate shortterm treatment in pediatric Crohn's disease. The results of multi-center pediatric clinical trials of both infliximab and adalimumab in Crohn's disease and of infliximab in ulcerative colitis (all in children with unsatisfactory responses to other therapies) have now been reported and guide treatment regimens in clinical practice. Optimal patient selection and timing of anti-TNF therapy requires clinical judgment. Attention must be paid to sustaining responsiveness safely. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012.

Marin S.E.,McMaster Childrens Hospital | Callen D.J.A.,McMaster Childrens Hospital
Neuroimaging Clinics of North America | Year: 2013

Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an immunologically mediated inflammatory disease of the central nervous system that typically occurs after a viral infection or recent vaccination, and is most commonly seen in the pediatric population. In 2007 the International Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis Study Group proposed a consensus definition for ADEM for application in research and clinical settings. This article gives an overview of ADEM in children, focusing on differences that have emerged since the consensus definition was established. Although the focus is on neuroimaging in these patients, a synopsis of the clinical features, immunopathogenesis, treatment, and prognosis of ADEM is provided. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

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