McMaster Brain Body Institute

Hamilton, Canada

McMaster Brain Body Institute

Hamilton, Canada
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Davey K.J.,Alimentary Pharmabiotic Center | Davey K.J.,University College Cork | O'Mahony S.M.,Alimentary Pharmabiotic Center | O'Mahony S.M.,University College Cork | And 12 more authors.
Psychopharmacology | Year: 2012

Rationale: Atypical antipsychotic drugs (AAPDs) such as olanzapine have a serious side effect profile including weight gain and metabolic dysfunction, and a number of studies have suggested a role for gender in the susceptibility to these effects. In recent times, the gut microbiota has been recognised as a major contributor to the regulation of body weight and metabolism. Thus, we investigated the effects of olanzapine on body weight, behaviour, gut microbiota and inflammatory and metabolic markers in both male and female rats. Methods: Male and female rats received olanzapine (2 or 4 mg/kg/day) or vehicle for 3 weeks. Body weight, food and water intake were monitored daily. The faecal microbial content was assessed by 454 pyrosequencing. Plasma cytokines (tumour necrosis alpha, interleukin 8 (IL-8), interleuin-6 and interleukin 1-beta (IL-1β)) as well as expression of genes including sterol-regulatory element binding protein-1c and CD68 were analysed. Results: Olanzapine induced significant body weight gain in the female rats only. Only female rats treated with olanzapine (2 mg/kg) had elevated plasma levels of IL-8 and IL-1β, while both males and females had olanzapine-induced increases in adiposity and evidence of macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue. Furthermore, an altered microbiota profile was observed following olanzapine treatment in both genders. Conclusions: This study furthers the theory that gender may impact on the nature of, and susceptibility to, certain side effects of antipsychotics. In addition, we demonstrate, what is to our knowledge the first time, an altered microbiota associated with chronic olanzapine treatment. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

Cremon C.,University of Bologna | Cremon C.,S. Orsola Malpighi University Hospital | Carini G.,University of Bologna | Wang B.,McMaster Brain Body Institute | And 9 more authors.
American Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2011

Objectives: Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) metabolism may be altered in gut disorders, including in the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We assessed in patients with IBS vs. healthy controls (HCs) the number of colonic 5-HT-positive cells; the amount of mucosal 5-HT release; their correlation with mast cell counts and mediator release, as well as IBS symptoms; and the effects of mucosal 5-HT on electrophysiological responses in vitro. Methods: We enrolled 25 Rome II IBS patients and 12 HCs. IBS symptom severity and frequency were graded 0-4. 5-HT-positive enterochromaffin cells and tryptase-positive mast cells were assessed with quantitative immunohistochemistry on colonic biopsies. Mucosal 5-HT and mast cell mediators were assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography or immunoenzymatic assay, respectively. The impact of mucosal 5-HT on electrophysiological activity of rat mesenteric afferent nerves was evaluated in vitro. Results: Compared with HCs, patients with IBS showed a significant increase in 5-HT-positive cell counts (0.370.16% vs. 0.560.26%; P<0.039), which was significantly greater in patients with diarrhea-predominant IBS vs. constipation-predominant IBS (P<0.035). Compared with HCs, 5-HT release in patients with IBS was 10-fold significantly increased (P<0.001), irrespective of bowel habit, and was correlated with mast cell counts. A significant correlation was found between the mucosal 5-HT release and the severity of abdominal pain (r s 0.582, P<0.047). The area under the curve, but not peak sensory afferent discharge evoked by IBS samples in rat jejunum, was significantly inhibited by the 5-HT 3 receptor antagonist granisetron (P<0.005). Conclusions: In patients with IBS, 5-HT spontaneous release was significantly increased irrespective of bowel habit and correlated with mast cell counts and the severity of abdominal pain. Our results suggest that increased 5-HT release contributes to development of abdominal pain in IBS, probably through mucosal immune activation. © 2011 by the American College of Gastroenterology.

Perez-Burgos A.,McMaster Brain Body Institute | Mao Y.-K.,McMaster Brain Body Institute | Bienenstock J.,McMaster Brain Body Institute | Bienenstock J.,McMaster University | And 2 more authors.
FASEB Journal | Year: 2014

It is generally accepted that intestinal sensory vagal fibers are primary afferent, responding nonsynaptically to luminal stimuli. The gut also contains intrinsic primary afferent neurons (IPANs) that respond to luminal stimuli. A psychoactive Lactobacillus rhamnosus (JB-1) that affects brain function excites both vagal fibers and IPANs. We wondered whether, contrary to its primary afferent designation, the sensory vagus response to JB-1 might depend on IPAN to vagal fiber synaptic transmission. We recorded ex vivo singleand multiunit afferent action potentials from mesenteric nerves supplying mouse jejunal segments. Intramural synaptic blockade with Ca + channel blockers reduced constitutive or JB-1-evoked vagal sensory discharge. Firing of 60% of spontaneously active units was reduced by synaptic blockade. Synaptic or nicotinic receptor blockade reduced firing in 60% of vagal sensory units that were stimulated by luminal JB-1. In control experiments, increasing or decreasing IPAN excitability, respectively increased or decreased nerve firing that was abolished by synaptic blockade or vagotomy. We conclude that >50% of vagal afferents function as interneurons for stimulation by JB-1, receiving input from an intramural functional "sensory synapse." This was supported by myenteric plexus nicotinic receptor immunohistochemistry. These data offer a novel therapeutic target to modify pathological gut-brain axis activity. © FASEB.

Wang B.,McMaster University | Mao Y.-K.,McMaster Brain Body Institute | Diorio C.,McMaster Brain Body Institute | Wang L.,McMaster Brain Body Institute | And 5 more authors.
Neurogastroenterology and Motility | Year: 2010

Background We have previously shown that ingestion of Lactobacillus reuteri may modulate colonic enteric neuron activity but with unknown effects on colon motility. The aim of the present report was to elucidate the neuronal mechanisms of action of the probiotic by comparing the effects on motility of L. reuteri ingestion with blockade of a specific ionic current in enteric neurons. Methods We have used intraluminal pressure recordings from ex vivo rat colon segments and whole cell patch clamp recordings from neurons of rat longitudinal muscle myenteric plexus preparations to investigate the effects of L. reuteri and TRAM-34 on colon motility and neurophysiology. The effects of daily feeding of 109L. reuteri bacteria or acute application of TRAM-34 on threshold fluid filling pressure or pulse pressure was measured. Key Results Lactobacillus reuteri increased intraluminal fluid filling pressure thresholds for evoking pressure pulses by 51% from 0.47 ± 0.17 hPa; the probiotic also decreased the pulse pressure amplitudes, but not frequency, by 18% from 3.91 ± 0.52 hPa. The intermediate conductance calcium-dependent potassium (IK Ca) channel blocker TRAM-34 (3 μmol L-1) increased filling threshold pressure by 43% from 0.52 ± 0.22 hPa and reduced pulse pressure amplitude by 40% from 2.63 ± 1.11 hPa; contraction frequency was unaltered. TRAM-34 (3 μmol L-1) reduced membrane polarization, leak conductance and the slow afterhyperpolarization current in 16/16 myenteric rat colon AH cells but 19/19 S cells were unaffected. Conclusions & Inferences The present results are consistent with L. reuteri enhancing tonic inhibition of colon contractile activity by acting via the IKCa channel current in AH cells. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Mao Y.-K.,McMaster Brain Body Institute | Kasper D.L.,Harvard University | Wang B.,McMaster University | Forsythe P.,McMaster Brain Body Institute | And 5 more authors.
Nature Communications | Year: 2013

Symbionts or probiotics are known to affect the nervous system. To understand the mechanisms involved, it is important to measure sensory neuron responses and identify molecules responsible for this interaction. Here we test the effects of adding Lactobacillus rhamnosus (JB-1) and Bacteroides fragilis to the epithelium while making voltage recordings from intestinal primary afferent neurons. Sensory responses are recorded within 8 s of applying JB-1 and excitability facilitated within 15 min. Bacteroides fragilis produces similar results, as does its isolated, capsular exopolysaccharide, polysaccharide A. Lipopolysaccharide-free polysaccharide A completely mimics the neuronal effects of the parent organism. Experiments with a mutant Bacteroides fragilis devoid of polysaccharide A shows that polysaccharide A is necessary and sufficient for the neuronal effects. Complex carbohydrates have not been reported before as candidates for such signalling between symbionts and the host. These observations indicate new neuronal targets and invite further study of bacterial carbohydrates as inter-kingdom signalling molecules between beneficial bacteria and sensory neurons. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

Wang B.,McMaster Brain Body Institute | Wang B.,McMaster University | Mao Y.-K.,McMaster Brain Body Institute | Diorio C.,McMaster Brain Body Institute | And 6 more authors.
FASEB Journal | Year: 2010

Gut commensals modulate host immune, endocrine, and metabolic functions. They also affect peripheral and central neural reflexes and function. We have previously shown that daily ingestion of Lactobacillus reuteri (LR) for 9 d inhibits the pseudoaffective cardiac response and spinal single-fiber discharge evoked by visceral distension, and decreases intestinal motility and myenteric AH cell slow afterhyperpolarization (sAHP) by inhibiting a Ca-activated K (IKCa) channel. We tested whether luminal LR could acutely decrease motility in an ex vivo perfusion model of naive Balb/c jejunum. Live LR dose dependently decreased motor complex pressure wave amplitudes with 9- to 16-min onset latency and an IC50 of 5 × 107 cells/ml Krebs. Heat-killed LR or another live commensal, Lactobacillus salivarius, were without effect. The IKCa channel blocker TRAM-34, but neither the opener (DCEBIO) nor the hyperpolarization-activated cationic channel inhibitor ZD7288 (5 μM) (or TTX 1 μM), mimicked the LR effect on motility acutely ex vivo. We provide evidence for a rapid, strain-specific, dose-dependent action of a live Lactobacillus on small intestinal motility reflexes that recapitulates the long-term effects of LR ingestion. These observations may be useful as a first step to unraveling the pathways involved in bacteria to the nervous system communication. © FASEB.

Perez-Burgos A.,McMaster Brain Body Institute | Wang L.,McMaster University | Mcvey Neufeld K.-A.,McMaster Brain Body Institute | Mao Y.-K.,McMaster Brain Body Institute | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Physiology | Year: 2015

Certain bacteria exert visceral antinociceptive activity, but the mechanisms involved are not determined. Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 was examined since it may be antinociceptive in children. Since transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel activity may mediate nociceptive signals, we hypothesized that TRPV1 current is inhibited by DSM. We tested this by examining the effect of DSM on the firing frequency of spinal nerve fibres in murine jejunal mesenteric nerve bundles following serosal application of capsaicin. We also measured the effects of DSM on capsaicin-evoked increase in intracellular Ca2+ or ionic current in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Furthermore, we tested the in vivo antinociceptive effects of oral DSM on gastric distension in rats. Live DSM reduced the response of capsaicin- and distension-evoked firing of spinal nerve action potentials (238 ± 27.5% vs. 129 ± 17%). DSM also reduced the capsaicin-evoked TRPV1 ionic current in DRG neuronal primary culture from 83 ± 11% to 41 ± 8% of the initial response to capsaicin only. Another lactobacillus (Lactobacillus rhamnosus JB-1) with known visceral anti-nociceptive activity did not have these effects. DSM also inhibited capsaicin-evoked Ca2+ increase in DRG neurons; an increase in Ca2+ fluorescence intensity ratio of 2.36 ± 0.31 evoked by capsaicin was reduced to 1.25 ± 0.04. DSM releasable products (conditioned medium) mimicked DSM inhibition of capsaicin-evoked excitability. The TRPV1 antagonist 6-iodonordihydrocapsaicin or the use of TRPV1 knock-out mice revealed that TRPV1 channels mediate about 80% of the inhibitory effect of DSM on mesenteric nerve response to high intensity gut distension. Finally, feeding with DSM inhibited perception in rats of painful gastric distension. Our results identify a specific target channel for a probiotic with potential therapeutic properties. Journal compilation © 2015 The Physiological Society.

PubMed | McMaster University and McMaster Brain Body Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: BMC medicine | Year: 2017

Stress-related disorders involve systemic alterations, including disruption of the intestinal microbial community. Given the putative connections between the microbiota, immunity, neural function, and behaviour, we investigated the potential for microbe-induced gut-to-brain signalling to modulate the impact of stress on host behaviour and immunoregulation.Male C57BL/6 mice treated orally over 28days with either Lactobacillus rhamnosus (JB-1) or vehicle were subjected to chronic social defeat and assessed for alterations in behaviour and immune cell phenotype. 16S rRNA sequencing and mass spectrometry were employed to analyse the faecal microbial community and metabolite profile.Treatment with JB-1 decreased stress-induced anxiety-like behaviour and prevented deficits in social interaction with conspecifics. However, JB-1 did not alter development of aggressor avoidance following social defeat. Microbial treatment attenuated stress-related activation of dendritic cells while increasing IL-10+ regulatory T cells. Furthermore, JB-1 modulated the effect of stress on faecal metabolites with neuroactive and immunomodulatory properties. Exposure to social defeat altered faecal microbial community composition and reduced species richness and diversity, none of which was prevented by JB-1. Stress-related microbiota disruptions persisted in vehicle-treated mice for 3weeks following stressor cessation.These data demonstrate that despite the complexity of the gut microbiota, exposure to a single microbial strain can protect against certain stress-induced behaviours and systemic immune alterations without preventing dysbiosis. This work supports microbe-based interventions for stress-related disorders.

PubMed | McMaster University and McMaster Brain Body Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Neurogastroenterology and motility : the official journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society | Year: 2016

Environmental stress affects the gut with dysmotility being a common consequence. Although a variety of microbes or molecules may prevent the dysmotility, none reverse the dysmotility.We have used a 1hour restraint stress mouse model to test for treatment effects of the neuroactive microbe, L.rhamnosus JB-1Stress reduced jejunal and increased colonic propagating contractile cluster velocities and frequencies, while increasing contraction amplitudes for both. Luminal application of 10E8cfu/mL JB-1 restored motor complex variables to unstressed levels within minutes of application. L.salivarius or Na.acetate had no treatment effects, while Na.butyrate partially reversed stress effects on colonic frequency and amplitude. Na.propionate reversed the stress effects for jejunum and colon except on jejunal amplitude.Our findings demonstrate, for the first time, a potential for certain beneficial microbes as treatment of stress-induced intestinal dysmotility and that the mechanism for restoration of function occurs within the intestine via a rapid drug-like action on the enteric nervous system.

PubMed | McMaster Brain Body Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: World journal of gastroenterology | Year: 2017

To investigate the capacity of Adult Swiss Webster mice were stressed for 1 h in a wire-mesh restraint to induce symptoms of intestinal dysmotility and were subsequently killed by cervical dislocation. Jejunal and colon tissue were excised and placed within a tissue perfusion bath in which There is a potential therapeutic role for

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