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Badylak S.F.,McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine | Weiss D.J.,University of Vermont | Caplan A.,University of Pennsylvania
The Lancet | Year: 2012

End-stage organ failure is a key challenge for the medical community because of the ageing population and the severe shortage of suitable donor organs available. Equally, injuries to or congenital absence of complex tissues such as the trachea, oesophagus, or skeletal muscle have few therapeutic options. A new approach to treatment involves the use of three-dimensional biological scaffolds made of allogeneic or xenogeneic extracellular matrix derived from non-autologous sources. These scaffolds can act as an inductive template for functional tissue and organ reconstruction after recellularisation with autologous stem cells or differentiated cells. Such an approach has been used successfully for the repair and reconstruction of several complex tissues such as trachea, oesophagus, and skeletal muscle in animal models and human beings, and, guided by appropriate scientific and ethical oversight, could serve as a platform for the engineering of whole organs and other tissues. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Swamynathan S.K.,McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine
Journal of Ophthalmology | Year: 2013

The ocular surface - a continuous epithelial surface with regional specializations including the surface and glandular epithelia of the cornea, conjunctiva, and lacrimal and meibomian glands connected by the overlying tear film - plays a central role in vision. Molecular and cellular events involved in embryonic development, postnatal maturation, and maintenance of the ocular surface are precisely regulated at the level of gene expression by a well-coordinated network of transcription factors. A thorough appreciation of the biological characteristics of the ocular surface in terms of its gene expression profiles and their regulation provides us with a valuable insight into the pathophysiology of various blinding disorders that disrupt the normal development, maturation, and/or maintenance of the ocular surface. This paper summarizes the current status of our knowledge related to the ocular surface development and gene expression and the contribution of different transcription factors to this process. © 2013 Shivalingappa K. Swamynathan.

Vodovotz Y.,McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine
Wound Repair and Regeneration | Year: 2010

Personalized medicine is a major goal for the future of healthcare, and we suggest that computational simulations are necessary in order to achieve it. Inflammatory diseases, both acute and chronic, represent an area in which personalized medicine is especially needed, given the high level of individual variability that characterizes these diseases. We have created such simulations, and have used them to gain basic insights into the inflammatory response under baseline, gene-knockout, and drug-treated experimental animals; for in silico experiments and clinical trials in sepsis, trauma, and wound healing; and to create patient-specific simulations in polytrauma, traumatic brain injury, and vocal fold inflammation. Since they include both circulating and tissue-level inflammatory mediators, these simulations transcend typical cytokine networks by associating inflammatory processes with tissue/organ damage via tissue damage/dysfunction. We suggest that computational simulations are the cornerstone of Translational Systems Biology approaches for inflammatory diseases. © 2010 by the Wound Healing Society.

Chu C.T.,McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular Basis of Disease | Year: 2010

Dysregulation of mitochondrial structure and function has emerged as a central factor in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease and related parkinsonian disorders (PD). Toxic and environmental injuries and risk factors perturb mitochondrial complex I function, and gene products linked to familial PD often affect mitochondrial biology. Autosomal recessive mutations in PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) cause an L-DOPA responsive parkinsonian syndrome, stimulating extensive interest in the normal neuroprotective and mitoprotective functions of PINK1. Recent data from mammalian and invertebrate model systems converge upon interactions between PINK1 and parkin, as well as DJ-1, α-synuclein and leucine rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2). While all studies to date support a neuroprotective role for wild type, but not mutant PINK1, there is less agreement on subcellular compartmentalization of PINK1 kinase function and whether PINK1 promotes mitochondrial fission or fusion. These controversies are reviewed in the context of the dynamic mitochondrial lifecycle, in which mitochondrial structure and function are continuously modulated not only by the fission-fusion machinery, but also by regulation of biogenesis, axonal/dendritic transport and autophagy. A working model is proposed, in which PINK1 loss-of-function results in mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS), cristae/respiratory dysfunction and destabilization of calcium homeostasis, which trigger compensatory fission, autophagy and biosynthetic repair pathways that dramatically alter mitochondrial structure. Concurrent strategies to identify pathways that mediate normal PINK1 function and to identify factors that facilitate appropriate compensatory responses to its loss are both needed to halt the aging-related penetrance and incidence of familial and sporadic PD. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Agrawal V.,McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine
Tissue engineering. Part A | Year: 2012

Tissue regeneration in response to injury in adult mammals is generally limited to select tissues. Nonmammalian species such as newts and axolotls undergo regeneration of complex tissues such as limbs and digits via recruitment and accumulation of local and circulating multipotent progenitors preprogrammed to recapitulate the missing tissue. Directed recruitment and activation of progenitor cells at a site of injury in adult mammals may alter the default wound-healing response from scar tissue toward regeneration. Bioactive molecules derived from proteolytic degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins have been shown to recruit a variety of progenitor cells in vitro and in vivo to the site of injury. The present study further characterized the population of cells accumulating at the site of injury after treatment with ECM degradation products in a well-established model of murine digit amputation. After a mid-second phalanx digit amputation in 6-8-week-old adult mice, treatment with ECM degradation products resulted in the accumulation of a heterogeneous population of cells, a subset of which expressed the transcription factor Sox2, a marker of pluripotent and adult progenitor cells. Sox2+ cells were localized lateral to the amputated P2 bone and coexpressed progenitor cell markers CD90 and Sca1. Transgenic Sox2 eGFP/+ and bone marrow chimeric mice showed that the bone marrow and blood circulation did not contribute to the Sox2+ cell population. The present study showed that, in addition to circulating progenitor cells, resident tissue-derived cells also populate at the site of injury after treatment with ECM degradation products. Although future work is necessary to determine the contribution of Sox2+ cells to functional tissue at the site of injury, recruitment and/or activation of local tissue-derived cells may be a viable approach to tissue engineering of more complex tissues in adult mammals.

Gilbert T.W.,McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine
Journal of Cellular Biochemistry | Year: 2012

Decellularized tissues have been successfully used in a variety of tissue engineering/regenerative medicine applications, and more recently decellularized organs have been utilized in the first stages of organ engineering. The protocols used to decellularize simple tissues versus intact organs differ greatly. Herein, the most commonly used decellularization methods for both surgical mesh materials and whole organs are described, with consideration given to how these different processes affect the extracellular matrix and the host response to the scaffold. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Duncan A.W.,McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine
Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology | Year: 2013

Polyploidy has been described in the liver for over 100 years. The frequency of polyploid hepatocytes varies by age and species, but up to 90% of mouse hepatocytes and approximately 50% of human hepatocytes are polyploid. In addition to alterations in the entire complement of chromosomes, variations in chromosome copy number have been recently described. Aneuploidy in the liver is pervasive, affecting 60% of hepatocytes in mice and 30-90% of hepatocytes in humans. Polyploidy and aneuploidy in the liver are closely linked, and the ploidy conveyor model describes this relationship. Diploid hepatocytes undergo failed cytokinesis to generate polyploid cells. Proliferating polyploid hepatocytes, which form multipolar spindles during cell division, generate reduced ploidy progeny (e.g., diploid hepatocytes from tetraploids or octaploids) and/or aneuploid daughters. New evidence suggests that random hepatic aneuploidy can promote adaptation to liver injury. For instance, in response to chronic liver damage, subsets of aneuploid hepatocytes that are differentially resistant to the injury remain healthy, regenerate the liver and restore function. Future work is required to elucidate the mechanisms regulating dynamic chromosome changes in the liver and to understand how these processes impact normal and abnormal liver function. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Chu C.T.,McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine
Human Molecular Genetics | Year: 2010

The PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) is a mitochondrially targeted serine-threonine kinase, which is linked to autosomal recessive familial parkinsonism. Current literature implicates PINK1 as a pivotal regulator of mitochondrial quality control, promoting maintenance of respiring mitochondrial networks through cristae stabilization, phosphorylation of chaperones and possibly regulation of mitochondrial transport or autophagy. Pulse-chase studies indicate that PINK1 is rapidly processed into at least two shorter forms, which are distributed in both mitochondrial and cytosolic compartments. Through indirect regulation of mitochondrial proteases and Drp1, PINK1 may act to facilitate localized repair and fusion in response to minor mitochondrial stress. With severe mitochondrial damage, PINK1 facilitates aggregation and clearance of depolarized mitochondria through interactions with Parkin and possibly Beclin1. This switch in function most probably involves altered processing, post-translational modification and/or localization of PINK1, as overexpression of full-length PINK1 is required for mitochondrial Parkin recruitment. Under conditions of PINK1 deficiency, dysregulation of reactive oxygen species, electron transport chain function and calcium homeostasis trigger altered mitochondrial dynamics, indicating compromise of mitochondrial quality control mechanisms. Nevertheless, Parkin- and Beclin1-regulated mitochondrial autophagy remains effective at recycling PINK1-deficient mitochondria; failure of this final tier of mitochondrial quality control contributes to cell death. Thus, PINK1 plays a pivotal, multifactorial role in mitochondrial homeostasis. As autophagic recycling represents the final tier of mitochondrial quality control, whether PINK1 levels are enhanced or reduced, strat- egies to promote selective mitophagy and mitochondrial biogenesis may prove effective for multiple forms of Parkinson's disease. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press.

Muskovich M.,000 Forbes Avenue | Bettinger C.J.,000 Forbes Avenue | Bettinger C.J.,McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine
Advanced Healthcare Materials | Year: 2012

Advanced polymeric biomaterials continue to serve as a cornerstone for new medical technologies and therapies. The vast majority of these materials, both natural and synthetic, interact with biological matter in the absence of direct electronic communication. However, biological systems have evolved to synthesize and utilize naturally-derived materials for the generation and modulation of electrical potentials, voltage gradients, and ion fl ows. Bioelectric phenomena can be translated into potent signaling cues for intra- and inter-cellular communication. These cues can serve as a gateway to link synthetic devices with biological systems. This progress report will provide an update on advances in the application of electronically active biomaterials for use in organic electronics and bio-interfaces. Specific focus will be granted to covering technologies where natural and synthetic biological materials serve as integral components such as thin film electronics, in vitro cell culture models, and implantable medical devices. Future perspectives and emerging challenges will also be highlighted. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co.

Balmert S.C.,McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine | Little S.R.,McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine
Advanced Materials | Year: 2012

The nascent fi eld of biomimetic delivery with micro- and nanoparticles (MNP) has advanced considerably in recent years. Drawing inspiration from the ways that cells communicate in the body, several different modes of "delivery" (i.e., temporospatial presentation of biological signals) have been investigated in a number of therapeutic contexts. In particular, this review focuses on (1) controlled release formulations that deliver natural soluble factors with physiologically relevant temporal context, (2) presentation of surface-bound ligands to cells, with spatial organization of ligands ranging from isotropic to dynamically anisotropic, and (3) physical properties of particles, including size, shape and mechanical stiffness, which mimic those of natural cells. Importantly, the context provided by multimodal, or multifactor delivery represents a key element of most biomimetic MNP systems, a concept illustrated by an analogy to human interpersonal communication. Regulatory implications of increasingly sophisticated and "cell-like" biomimetic MNP systems are also discussed. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

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