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Montreal, Canada

McGill University is a public research university in Montreal, Canada, officially founded by royal charter in 1821. The University bears the name of James McGill, a prominent Montreal merchant from Scotland and alumnus of Glasgow University, whose bequest in 1813 formed precursory McGill College.McGill's main campus is set at the foot of Mount Royal in Downtown Montreal with the second campus, situated near fields and forested lands in Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue, 30 kilometres west of the downtown campus on the Montreal Island. All the academic units are organized into 11 main Faculties and Schools, and the institution is one of the two members of Association of American Universities located outside the United States. Valued at $33,421 per student, the University maintains one of the largest endowments among Canadian universities on a per-student basis.McGill offers degrees and diplomas in over 300 fields of study. Most students are enrolled in five larger Faculties, namely Arts, Science, Medicine, Engineering, and Management, with the highest entering grade of any Canadian university. Tuition fees vary significantly between in-province, out-of-province, and international students, and the scholarships are very generous yet highly competitive and relatively difficult to attain, compared to other Canadian universities.McGill counts among its alumni 12 Nobel laureates and 138 Rhodes Scholars, both the most in the country, as well as three astronauts, two Canadian prime ministers, 13 justices of the Canadian Supreme Court, four foreign leaders, 28 foreign ambassadors, nine Academy Award winners, three Pulitzer Prize winners, and 28 Olympic medalists. Throughout its long history, McGill alumni were also instrumental in inventing or initially organizing football, basketball, and ice hockey and founding several other universities, including the Universities of British Columbia, Victoria, and Alberta, and the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine. Wikipedia.

Pastinen T.,McGill University
Nature Reviews Genetics

Functional genomics is rapidly progressing towards the elucidation of elements that are crucial for the cis-regulatory control of gene expression, and population-based studies of disease and gene expression traits are yielding widespread evidence of the influence of non-coding variants on trait variance. Recently, genome-wide allele-specific approaches that harness high-throughput sequencing technology have started to allow direct evaluation of how these cis-regulatory polymorphisms control gene expression and affect chromatin states. The emerging data is providing exciting opportunities for comprehensive characterization of the allele-specific events that govern human gene regulation. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source

Although several early phase clinical trials raised enthusiasm for the use of insulin-like growth factor I receptor (IGF1R)-specific antibodies for cancer treatment, initial Phase III results in unselected patients have been disappointing. Further clinical studies may benefit from the use of predictive biomarkers to identify probable responders, the use of rational combination therapies and the consideration of alternative targeting strategies, such as ligand-specific antibodies and receptor-specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Targeting insulin and IGF signalling also needs to be considered in the broader context of the pathophysiology that relates obesity and diabetes to neoplasia, and the effects of anti-diabetic drugs, including metformin, on cancer risk and prognosis. The insulin and IGFI receptor family is also relevant to the development of PI3K-AKT pathway inhibitors. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source

Mechanochemical reactions effected by milling or grinding are an attractive means to conduct chemical reactions dependent on molecular recognition and to systematically explore different modes of molecular self-assembly. The natural relationship between milling mechanochemistry and supramolecular chemistry arises primarily from the ability to avoid bulk solvent, which simultaneously avoids limitations of solution-based chemistry, such as solubility, solvent complexation, or solvolysis, and makes the resulting process highly environmentally friendly. This tutorial review highlights the use of mechanochemistry for the synthesis of supramolecular targets in the solid state, such as molecular hydrogen- or halogen-bonded complexes, molecular and supramolecular cages, open frameworks and interlocked architectures. It is also demonstrated that the molecular self-assembly phenomena that are well-established in solution chemistry, such as reversible binding through covalent or non-covalent bonds, thermodynamic equilibration and structure templating, are also accessible in milling mechanochemistry through recently developed highly efficient methodologies such as liquid-assisted grinding (LAG) or ion- and liquid-assisted grinding (ILAG). Also highlighted are the new opportunities arising from the marriage of concepts of supramolecular and mechanochemical synthesis, including organocatalysis, deracemisation and discovery of new molecular recognition motifs. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012. Source

Kambhampati P.,McGill University
Accounts of Chemical Research

The quantum dot, one of the central materials in nanoscience, is a semiconductor crystal with a physical size on the nanometer length scale. It is often called an "artificial atom" because researchers can create nanostructures which yield properties similar to those of real atoms. By virtue of having a size in between molecules and solids, the quantum dot offers a rich palette for exploring new science and developing novel technologies. Although the physical structure of quantum dots is well known, a clear understanding of the resultant electronic structure and dynamics has remained elusive. However, because the electronic structure and dynamics of the dot, the "excitonics", confer its function in devices such as solar cells, lasers, LEDs, and nonclassical photon sources, a more complete understanding of these properties is critical for device development. In this Account, we use colloidal CdSe dots as a test bed upon which to explore four select issues in excitonic processes in quantum dots. We have developed a state-resolved spectroscopic approach which has yielded precise measurements of the electronic structural dynamics of quantum dots and has made inroads toward creating a unified picture of many of the key dynamic processes in these materials. We focus on four main topics of longstanding interest and controversy: (i) hot exciton relaxation dynamics, (ii) multiexcitons, (iii) optical gain, and (iv) exciton - phonon coupling. Using this state-resolved approach, we reconcile long standing controversies related to phenomena such as exciton cooling and exciton - phonon coupling and make surprising new observations related to optical gain and multiexcitons. © 2010 American Chemical Society. Source

Li C.-J.,McGill University
Accounts of Chemical Research

One of the major research endeavors in synthetic chemistry over the past two decades is the exploration of synthetic methods that work under ambient atmosphere with benign solvents, that maximize atom utilization, and that directly transform natural resources, such as renewable biomass, from their native states into useful chemical products, thus avoiding the need for protecting groups. The nucleophilic addition of terminal alkynes to various unsaturated electrophiles is a classical (textbook) reaction in organic chemistry, allowing the formation of a C-C bond while simultaneously introducing the alkyne functionality. A prerequisite of this classical reaction is the stoichiometric generation of highly reactive metal acetylides. Over the past decade, our laboratory and others have been exploring an alternative, the catalytic and direct nucleophilic addition of terminal alkynes to unsaturated electrophiles in water. We found that various terminal alkynes can react efficiently with a wide range of such electrophiles in water (or organic solvent) in the presence of simple and readily available catalysts, such as copper, silver, gold, iron, palladium, and others. In this Account, we describe the development of these synthetic methods, focusing primarily on results from our laboratory. Our studies include the following: (i) catalytic reaction of terminal alkynes with acid chloride, (ii) catalytic addition of terminal alkynes to aldehydes and ketones, (iii) catalytic addition of alkynes to C - N bonds, and (iv) catalytic conjugate additions. Most importantly, these reactions can tolerate various functional groups and, in many cases, perform better in water than in organic solvents, clearly defying classical reactivities predicated on the relative acidities of water, alcohols, and terminal alkynes. We further discuss multicomponent and enantioselective reactions that were developed. These methods provide an alternative to the traditional requirement of separate steps in classical alkyne reactions, including the pregeneration of metal acetylides with stoichiometric, highly basic reagents and the preprotection of sensitive functional groups. Accordingly, these techniques have greatly enhanced overall synthetic efficiencies and furthered our long-term objective of developing Grignard-type reactions in water. © 2010 American Chemical Society. Source

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