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Durban, South Africa

Quinlan D.,Victoria Gynecology and Continence Clinic | Quinlan D.K.,McCord Hospital
Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada | Year: 2010

Objective: To demonstrate that increased uterine size should not be a deterrent to the vaginal approach for performing hysterectomy. Method: We performed a retrospective study of the medical records pertaining to 2769 hysterectomies performed by a single surgeon. For this study, we reviewed the surgical details and outcome of 85 women who had a vaginal hysterectomy for a symptomatic fibroid uterus that was estimated to be equivalent in size to a uterus of between 10 and 20 weeks' gestation. Results: The vaginal approach for hysterectomy was successful in all 85 cases and complication rates were low. Sixteen women had additional adnexal surgery besides hysterectomy. In 52 cases, morcellation of the uterus was required. Average operating time was 60 minutes. Conclusion: Increased uterine size should not be an automatic deterrent to the vaginal approach for hysterectomy. Nevertheless, individual surgeons should perform such challenging procedures only if they are properly trained and are comfortable doing so. Some surgeons may choose not to perform hysterectomies using the vaginal approach. © 2010 Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada.

Cohen G.M.,Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center | Drain P.K.,Massachusetts General Hospital | Drain P.K.,Brigham and Womens Hospital | Noubary F.,Institute for Clinical Research and Health Policy Studies | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes | Year: 2014

Setting: We conducted a retrospective study among HIV-infected adult suspects (≥18 years) with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), who underwent Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) testing at McCord Hospital and its adjoining HIV clinic in Durban, South Africa. Objective: To determine if Xpert testing performed at a centralized laboratory accelerated time to TB diagnosis. Design: We obtained data on sputum smear microscopy [acid-fast bacilli (AFB)], Xpert, and the rationale for treatment initiation from medical records. The primary outcome was "total diagnostic time," defined as time from sputum collection to clinicians' receipt of results. A linear mixed-effect model compared the duration of steps in the diagnostic pathway across testing modalities. Results: Among 403 participants, the median "total diagnostic time" for AFB and Xpert was 3.3 and 6.4 days, respectively (P < 0.001). When compared with AFB, the median delay for Xpert "laboratory processing" was 1.4 days (P < 0.001) and "result transfer to clinic" was 1.7 days (P < 0.001). Among 86 Xpert-positive participants who initiated treatment, 49 (57%) started treatment based on clinical suspicion or AFB-positive results, whereas only 32 (37%) started treatment based on Xpert-positive results. Conclusions: In our setting, Xpert results took twice as long as AFB results to reach clinicians. Replacing AFB with centralized Xpert may delay TB diagnoses in some settings. Copyright © 2014 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Matthews L.T.,Massachusetts General Hospital | Matthews L.T.,Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center | Crankshaw T.,McCord Hospital | Giddy J.,McCord Hospital | And 5 more authors.
AIDS and Behavior | Year: 2013

Understanding reproductive decisions and periconception behavior among HIV-discordant couples is important for designing risk reduction interventions for couples who choose to conceive. In-depth interviews were conducted to explore reproductive decision-making and periconception practices among HIV-positive women with recent pregnancy (n = 30), and HIV-positive men (n = 20), all reporting partners of negative or unknown HIV-status, and attending HIV services in Durban, South Africa. Transcripts were coded for categories and emergent themes. Participants expressed strong reasons for having children, but rarely knew how to reduce periconception HIV transmission. Pregnancy planning occurred on a spectrum ranging from explicitly intended to explicitly unintended, with many falling in between the two extremes. Male fertility desire and misunderstanding serodiscordance contributed to HIV risk behavior. Participants expressed openness to healthcare worker advice for safer conception and modified risk behavior post-conception, suggesting the feasibility of safer conception interventions which may target both men and women and include serodiscordance counseling and promotion of contraception. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Sunpath H.,McCord Hospital | Sunpath H.,Emory University | Wu B.,Emory University | Gordon M.,University of KwaZulu - Natal | And 6 more authors.
AIDS | Year: 2012

Objective: We sought to determine the rate of the K65R mutation in patients receiving tenofovir (TDF)-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) with subtype C HIV infection. Design: Retrospective cohort study. Methods: All patients initiated on stavudine (d4T) with lamivudine (3TC) or TDF with 3TC and a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor at McCord Hospital in Durban, South Africa had their charts reviewed. All patients with virologic failure, defined as a viral load more than 1000copies/ml after 5 months of a first ART regimen, had genotypic resistance testing performed prospectively using a validated in-house assay. Important resistance mutations were selected based upon published mutations in subtype B virus in the Stanford HIV Drug Resistance database. Results: A total of 585 patients were initiated on TDF-containing first-line ART from 3 August 2010 to 17 March 2011. Thirty-five (6.0%) of these patients had virologic failure and 23 of 33 (69.7%) of the virologic failure patients had the K65R mutation. The median (interquartile range) for the baseline CD4 cell count was 105cells/μl (49-209) and viral load at virologic failure was 47571copies/ml (20708-202000). During the same period, 53 patients were initiated on d4T-containing regimens. Two (3.8%) of these patients had virologic failure and one of the virologic failure patients had the K65R mutation. Conclusion: Preliminary data show very high rates (>65%) of K65R for patients failing TDF-based first-line regimens at McCord Hospital with few additional nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor mutations compared with subtype B. These rates may reflect faster in-vivo selection, longer time on a failing regimen or transmitted drug resistance. © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Murphy R.A.,Yeshiva University | Sunpath H.,McCord Hospital | Castilla C.,Brigham and Womens Hospital | Ebrahim S.,McCord Hospital | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes | Year: 2012

BACKGROUND: Currently, boosted protease inhibitor-containing regimens are the only option after first-line regimen failure available for patients in most resource-limited settings, yet little is known about long-term adherence and outcomes. METHODS: We enrolled patients with virologic failure (VF) who initiated lopinavir/ritonavir-containing second-line antiretroviral therapy (ART). Medication possession ratios were calculated using pharmacy refill dates. Factors associated with 12-month second-line virologic suppression [viral load (VL) <50 copies/mL] and adherence were determined. RESULTS: One hundred six patients (median CD4 count and VL at failure: 153 cells/mm and 28,548 copies/mL, respectively) were enrolled. Adherence improved after second-line ART switch (median adherence 6 months prior, 67%; median adherence during initial 6 months of second-line ART, 100%; P = 0.001). Higher levels of adherence during second-line ART was associated with virologic suppression at month 12 of ART (odds ratio 2.5 per 10% adherence increase, 95% CI 1.3 to 4.8, P = 0.01). Time to virologic suppression was most rapid among patients with 91%-100% adherence compared with patients with 80%-90% and <80% adherence (log rank test, P = 0.01). VF during 24 months of second-line ART was moderate (month 12: 25%, n = 32/126; month 18: 21%, n = 23/112; and month 24: 25%, n = 25/99). CONCLUSIONS: The switch to second-line ART in South Africa was associated with an improvement in adherence, however, a moderate ongoing rate of VF-among approximately 25% of patients receiving second-line ART patients at each follow-up interval-was a cause for concern. Adherence level was associated with second-line ART virologic outcome, helping explain why some patients achieved virologic suppression after switch and others did not. Copyright © 2012 by Lippincott Williams &Wilkins.

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