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Cook P.E.,Mca Inc. | Beers K.L.,Mca Inc.
International Journal of Poultry Science | Year: 2010

The objective of the following study was to evaluate the microbial efficacy of a Precure™ (Safe Foods Corporation, N. Little Rock, AR) dip (3 vs. 30 seconds) treatment (pH = 1.5) for further processed broiler parts including wings, leg quarters and breast halves. Precure™ is listed as a solution of GRAS acids for use by FDA and is listed as a safe and suitable ingredient by USDA for use on poultry. This study was conducted in response to the request by several poultry companies for a means to increase the shelf-life of further processed broiler parts. Therefore, 60 post-chill broiler carcasses were obtained from a local USDA-inspected poultry processing facility and were transported on ice to MCA Services (Rogers, AR). Upon arrival at the laboratory, the carcasses were held under refrigerated conditions (40 to 42°F) for 24 hours to simulate transport to a further processing (cut-up) facility. After the 24-hour refrigerated hold period, the 60 carcasses were each manually cut into six pieces including two wings, two leg quarters and two breast halves. The cut-up parts were then randomly divided into three groups including a control and two treatment groups. Within each treatment group a pair of wings, a pair of leg quarters or a pair of breast halves served as an individual sample. Thus, there were 20 samples for each of the three carcass parts within each of the three treatment groups. The treatment groups included the control which received no further treatment, a group which was subjected to a 3-second room temperature dip in Precure™ (pH = 1.5) and a group which was subjected to a 30-second room temperature dip in Precure™ (pH = 1.5). Parts in both of the dip treatments were allowed to drain for 30 seconds after dipping. All samples (two wings, two leg quarters or two breast halves) were placed into sterile poultry rinse bags and were then held refrigerated at 40°F until microbiological evaluation was initiated (< 4 hours). The rinse fluid (100 mL Butterfield's Phosphate Diluent) from the samples was evaluated for Aerobic Plate Count using Petrifilm™3 in accordance with USDA/FSIS standard laboratory procedures. The lower detection level was 1 colony forming unit per mL. All dipped parts were also observed for organoleptic properties and no negative qualities were observed. The Aerobic Plate Counts for the control parts were 2.0 logs (wings), 2.4 logs (leg quarters) and 1.9 logs (breast halves). The group that was subjected to the 3-second Precure™ dip had Aerobic Plate Count values of 0.5 logs (wings), 0.3 logs (leg quarters) and 0.9 logs (breast halves). There was no recovery of Aerobic Plate Count from parts that were subjected to the 30-second dip in Precure™. Thus, the 3-second dip in Precure™ resulted in Aerobic Plate Count reductions of > 97% for wings, > 99% for leg quarters and > 89% for breast halves while the 30-second dip in Precure™ allowed for no recovery of organisms. Results from this study clearly demonstrate that the use of Precure™ (pH = 1.5) as a dip treatment (3 to 30 seconds) for poultry parts will significantly improve the microbiological properties of poultry parts without adversely affecting the sensory attributes. Thus, the commercially available Precure™ treatment provides the processor with a very economical means of controlling the microbiological properties, and possibly extending the shelf-life, of further processed poultry parts. © Asian Network for Scientific Information, 2010.


Beers K.L.,Mca Inc. | Baker R.A.,Mca Inc. | Cook P.E.,Mca Inc.
International Journal of Poultry Science | Year: 2010

The objective of the following study was to evaluate the most efficacious pH for treatment of post-chill, cleaned broiler paws with the Precure™ (Safe Foods Corporation, N. Little Rock, AR) antimicrobial. Precure™ is listed as a solution of GRAS acids for use by FDA and is listed as a safe and suitable ingredient by USDA for use on poultry. This study was done at the request of a poultry processor who was being asked by the customer to adhere to strict microbial standards for poultry paws. Thus, a bag of randomly collected, chilled and cleaned paws was obtained from a local broiler processing facility and was transported on ice to MCA Services (Rogers, AR). Upon arrival at the laboratory, the bag of paws was held frozen (< 28°F) for 2 days and was then tempered (40 to 42°F) for two days prior to initiation of the study. For the experiment, there was a control group and three treatment groups. The control group and each of the three treatment groups consisted of three replicate samples (n=3). Each replicate sample consisted of three randomly selected paws. Thus, a treatment group consisted of a total of nine paws. The three treatment groups evaluated were Precure™ at pH=1.5, Precure™ at pH=1.7 and Precure™ at pH=1.85. For treatment of the product, the nine paws for each treatment group were placed on a wire rack and were allowed to touch and overlap as would be typical in a processing environment. Each treatment group of paws was sprayed with the appropriate Precure™ treatment at 20 mL per second for 5 seconds. Thus, each group of nine paws was sprayed with 100 mL of the appropriate Precure™ treatment solution. The sprayed paws were then allowed to drain for 10 seconds. After draining, paws were placed three to a bag in sterile rinse bags and were held at 40°F for < 4 hours until initiation of the microbiological analyses. Each sample was evaluated for Aerobic Plate Count, coliforms and Escherichia coli, as well as for presence or absence of Salmonella in accordance with USDA/FSIS standard laboratory procedures using 100 mL Butterfield's Phosphate Diluent. Petrifilm™ 3 was utilized for enumeration of organisms and Salmonella incidence was determined using the BAX®4 System PCR assay. The lower detection level for all quantified groups of organisms was 1 colony forming unit per mL. The control group of paws had an Aerobic Plate Count of 4.3 logs, a coliform count of 1.6 logs and an E coli count of 1.6 logs. Two of the three control groups of paws were positive for Salmonella. Log reductions in Aerobic Plate Count were 0.3, 0.2 and 0.6 for the Precure™ treatments at pH = 1.85, 1.7 and 1.5, respectively. Reductions in coliform levels were 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 logs at pH=1.85, 1.7 and 1.5, respectively. The reduction in E coli was log 0.2 for all pH treatment groups. It should be noted that the control level of E coli was only 0.2 logs, thus all treatment groups resulted in no recovery of E coli. As for Salmonella incidence, 0 of 3 samples was positive in the Precure™ pH=1.85 group, and 1 of 3 samples was positive in both the pH=1.7 and pH=1.5 treatment groups. Results from these trials indicate that a Precure™ spray at pH=1.5 is the most effective Precure™ treatment for reduction and elimination of microorganisms on chilled, cleaned broiler paws. However, it should be noted that microbial reductions were not greatly enhanced by lowering the pH of the Precure™ treatment from 1.85 to 1.5. In summary, effective application of Precure™ to broiler paws can provide the processor with an approved and very economical means of controlling spoilage and potentially pathogenic microorganisms. © Asian Network for Scientific Information, 2010.


The possibility of the presence of Listeria in marinade solutions poses a threat to the safety of injected poultry products. Thus, a sample (25 gallons) of a fresh poultry marinade was collected from a USDA-inspected poultry processing facility and was shipped overnight to MCA Services (Rogers, AR) under refrigerated conditions. Upon arrival at the laboratory, the marinade was inoculated with an overnight culture of Listeria innocua to a level of 3.4 logs per mL (colony forming units). The inoculated marinade was then passed through a FreshLight® 210 ultraviolet light system (Safe Foods Corporation, N. Little Rock, AR) for 10 minutes (flow rate = 10.6 gallons per minute and turnover time = 2.4 minutes). Samples were collected after 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 minutes of ultraviolet light exposure which corresponded to 0, 0.9, 1.7, 2.6, 3.4 and 4.3 calculated passes through the system. Samples of the marinade were plated on Aerobic Plate Count Petrifilm™3 to determine reductions in the inoculum over time. After 2 minutes of ultraviolet light exposure (approximately 1 pass through the ultraviolet light system), the level of Listeria innocua was reduced by 2 logs, at 8 minutes of exposure (3.4 passes) the level was reduced by 2.9 logs and at 10 minutes (4.3 passes) Listeria innocua could not be recovered from the poultry marinade solution. Thus, in 10 minutes of ultraviolet light exposure, levels of Listeria innocua in poultry marinade decreased from an initial level of 3.4 logs per mL to < 1.0 log (the lower detection level) per mL resulting in a > 99.5% reduction in the original level of inoculum. In conclusion, the commercially available FreshLight® 210 ultraviolet light system (FDA regulated under 21 CFR 179.39) is an extremely effective and low cost tool for controlling and eliminating Listeria innocua in commercial poultry marinades. © Asian Network for Scientific Information, 2010.


The injection of marinade into fresh poultry products can result in a buildup of pathogens in the marinade solution due to recirculation of the marinade through the pump and holding tank. Therefore, poultry processors are constantly searching for new ways to sanitize the recirculated marinade to eliminate the possibility of pathogens being injected into fresh poultry products. In an effort to solve this potential hazard, a fresh sample (20 gallons) of a typical poultry injection marinade was collected from a USDA-inspected commercial poultry processing facility and was shipped overnight, under refrigerated conditions, to MCA Services (Rogers, AR). Upon arrival at the laboratory, the marinade was inoculated with an overnight cocktail of Salmonella typhimurium and Listeria innocua to a level of 6.3 logs per mL (colony forming units). The inoculated marinade was then passed through a Freshlight® 210 ultraviolet light system (Safe Foods Corporation, N. Little Rock, AR) for 56 minutes (flow rate = 20 gallons per minute and turnover time = 1 minute). Samples were collected after 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 24, 28, 32, 40, 48 and 56 passes through the ultraviolet light system. Marinade samples were plated on Aerobic Plate Count Petrifilm™ 3 to determine microbial reductions by time and number of passes. Typical linear reductions were as follows: 2.5 logs at 2 passes (2 minutes), 3.5 logs at 16 passes (16 minutes), 4.7 logs at 40 passes (40 minutes) and 6.3 logs at 56 passes (56 minutes). Thus, in less than 60 minutes, the ultraviolet light system completely eliminated (> 99.9999%) all Salmonella and Listeria from the marinade. In conclusion, the commercially available FreshLight® 210 ultraviolet light system (FDA regulated under 21 CFR 179.39) offers the poultry industry a very effective, reliable and inexpensive means for controlling or eliminating spoilage organisms and pathogens of concern in poultry marinades. © Asian Network for Scientific Information, 2010.


The presence of Listeria in marinade used to inject fresh whole muscle poultry products poses a potential threat to processors. In an attempt to offer a solution to this problem, two representative samples (20 gallons each) of fresh poultry marinade solution were collected on two separate days from a USDA-inspected poultry processing facility and were shipped overnight to MCA Services (Rogers, AR) under refrigerated conditions. Upon arrival at the laboratory, the marinade solutions were inoculated with overnight cultures of Listeria innocua to a level (colony forming units) of 5.0 logs per ml (Trial 1) or 6.6 logs per ml (Trial 2) of marinade solution. The inoculated marinade was then passed through a FreshLight® 210 ultraviolet light system (Safe Foods Corporation, N. Little Rock, AR) for 20 minutes (flow rate = 8 gallons per minute and solution turnover time = 2.5 minutes). Samples of the marinade were collected at 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5, 15 and 17.5 minutes which corresponded to 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 passes through the ultraviolet light system. Aerobic Plate Count Petrifilm™3 was utilized to determine log reductions in Listeria innocua due to the ultraviolet light treatment. In both trials, after only 2.5 minutes of ultraviolet light exposure (1 pass through the ultraviolet light system), a > 2.2 log reduction was achieved in the level of the inoculated culture in the marinade solution. At 10 minutes of exposure (4 passes), a 4 log or greater reduction was achieved in both trials. After 15 minutes (5 passes), Listeria innocua could not be recovered from the marinade solution in either of the two trials (the lower detection level for the organism was 1 log colony forming unit per ml). Thus, in 15 minutes of ultraviolet light system exposure, the total level of Listeria innocua in the poultry marinade was reduced in linear fashion from 5 logs per ml (Trial 1) or 6 logs per ml (Trial 2) to less than 1 log per ml (no detectable organisms). This represents a > 99.99% to a > 99.999% reduction in the original starting level of inoculum in the poultry marinade solutions. In conclusion, the commercially available FreshLight® 210 ultraviolet light system (FDA regulated under 21 CFR 179.39) offers an extremely effective means for controlling and eliminating the incidence and levels of Listeria innocua in poultry marinade solutions at a very low cost to the processor. © Asian Network for Scientific Information, 2010.


Due to the recirculation process used in poultry injection procedures, the potential hazard of a buildup of naturally occurring organisms and potential pathogens in recirculated marinade poses a concern to the poultry industry. Thus, a study was designed to investigate the possibility of alleviating this problem. A typical poultry marinade (40 gallons) was formulated in the laboratory in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions using chicken powder, sodium chloride and sodium phosphate dissolved in potable water. A sample of the marinade solution was collected and microbiologically evaluated using Aerobic Plate Count Petrifilm™ 3 to determine an initial bacterial count. The marinade solution was then allowed to circulate in a FreshLight® 220 ultraviolet light system (Safe Foods Corporation, N. Little Rock, AR) for 1 minute (flow rate = 40 gallons per minute and solution turnover time = 1 minute) to determine microbial reductions in the naturally occurring microflora. The initial microbial count of the marinade was 3.6 logs per mL (colony forming units). After 1 minute of ultraviolet light treatment, the level of naturally occurring microflora was reduced to 1 log representing a 99.7% reduction. The marinade solution was then inoculated with an overnight culture of Listeria innocua to achieve a total level of bacteria in the marinade of 5.0 logs per mL. The inoculated marinade was then treated with the FreshLight® 220 ultraviolet light system for a period of 30 minutes. A sample of the marinade solution was collected every minute during the 30-minute test period and was plated on Aerobic Plate Count Petrifilm™ 3 to determine bacterial reductions over time. After only 1 minute (1 pass through the system), the total level of organisms in the marinade solution was reduced by 1.5 logs, after 5 minutes (5 passes) by > 3 logs, and by 9 minutes (9 passes) by > 4 logs indicating no recovery of organisms (the lower detection level was 1 log per mL). There was no recovery of organisms at any further treatment time. Thus, in less than 10 minutes of ultraviolet light treatment, the FreshLight® 220 ultraviolet light system was capable of achieving a 4 log reduction in total organisms (primarily Listeria innocua) in the poultry marinade solution. This represents a 99.99% reduction. In conclusion, the commercially available FreshLight® 220 ultraviolet light system (FDA regulated under 21 CFR 179.39) provides the processor with a very cost effective means of controlling and eliminating the incidence and levels of Listeria innocua in poultry marinades. © Asian Network for Scientific Information, 2010.


Baker R.A.,Mca Inc. | Beers K.L.,Mca Inc. | Cook P.E.,Mca Inc. | Smith B.A.,Mca Inc.
International Journal of Poultry Science | Year: 2010

The objective of the following study was to determine if a post-chill whole carcass Cecure® (Safe Foods Corporation, N. Little Rock, AR) treatment (0.3% @ 0.5 gallon/carcass) would extend the shelf-life of various further processed broiler products which were produced from Cecure®-treated whole carcasses. Cecure® is an FDA and USDA/FSIS approved, patented formulation containing the active ingredient cetylpyridinium chloride. Cecure® is approved by FDA and USDA/FSIS for application to pre-immersion chilled, post-immersion chilled and air-chilled whole carcasses and to skin-on carcass parts. For this study, a commercially available, fully automated, post-chill Cecure® rinse cabinet was installed and operated in a USDA-inspected broiler processing facility several months prior to initiation of the study. On the day the shelf-life study was to be conducted, a single flock of birds was utilized. Control samples were collected during a 2-hour period prior to turning on the Cecure® post-chill whole carcass system. Six different types of broiler products were collected for evaluation including boneless skinless breast meat, thighs, wings, split breasts, leg quarters and whole carcasses. After all control samples were collected (n=70 per product type) the Cecure® system was turned on and allowed to run for 2 hours after which similar product samples were collected for products produced from Cecure®-treated whole carcasses. All broiler parts were tray-packed and whole carcasses were bagged individually. On Day 0, all samples were held at 28° F for approximately 6 hours after which they were held at 32°F for 3 days. For the remainder of the study, all samples were held at 34°F. On Days 0, 5 and 10 and Days 14 through 22, each of the six product types was microbiologically evaluated using Aerobic Plate Count Petrifilm™ 3 until the products were considered spoiled (7 logs colony forming units per ml). Regardless of product type, the Cecure® whole carcass post-chill treatment (0.3%) resulted in initial reductions in Aerobic Plate Count on Day 0 from 0.5 to > 1 log. These initial Day 0 microbial reductions led to increases in product shelf-life as follows: boneless skinless breast meat and whole carcasses (1.5-day extension), thighs, split breasts and wings (2-day extension) and leg quarters (1 -day extension). It should be noted that the slope and the shape of the bacterial growth curves for all Cecure®-treated products were almost identical to those for the control products with the exception of a lower initial (Day 0) level of bacteria; hence, increasing the days to spoilage without a delayed technical effect. The results from this study demonstrate that the use of a post-chill Cecure® whole carcass rinse treatment (0.3%) will significantly improve the shelf-life of whole carcasses and corresponding cut-up broiler parts including boneless skinless breast meat, thighs, wings, split breasts and leg quarters. © Asian Network for Scientific Information, 2010.


Daneshgari P.,Mca Inc. | Moore H.,Mca Inc.
EC and M: Electrical Construction and Maintenance | Year: 2011

The American Society of Testing and Materials International (ASTM) has adopted a new standard for measuring construction productivity at task, project, and industry levels. The new standard is called ASTM E2691-09 or job productivity measurement (JPM) and is a fast-paced and real time measurement of productivity that relies on true input from the field for measuring construction and reflects on any gains or losses of productivity instantaneously. JPM also measures the change of rate of productivity at the same time it measures job progress in addition to the rate of productivity. The motivation for the development of the standard is linked to a widely recognized need for productivity improvement in construction. JPM also identifies productivity trends of the total job as well as the field response to individual cost codes.


Trademark
Mca Inc. | Date: 2011-10-19

Toys and playthings, namely, molding, modeling and sculpting compounds, namely, sand- or clay-like toy modeling dough; and molded toy figures to which such sand- or clay-like substance can be applied.


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