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Vasta M.,University College London | Barlow M.J.,University College London | Viti S.,University College London | Yates J.A.,University College London | Bell T.A.,MC
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2010

Far-infrared [C ii] 158-μm, [O i] 145-μm and [O i] 63-μm fine structure emission-line fluxes were measured from archival Infrared Space Observatory Long Wavelength Spectrometer spectra of 46 extragalactic sources, with 28 sources providing detections in all three lines. For 12 of the sources, the contribution to the [C ii] 158-μm line flux from H ii regions could be estimated from their detected [N ii] 122-μm line fluxes. The measured [C ii]/[O i] and [O i] 63/145-μm line flux ratios were compared with those from a grid of photodissociation region (PDR) models previously computed using the ucl_pdr code. Persistent offsets between the observed and modelled line ratios could be partly attributed to the effects of [O i] 63-μm self-absorption. Using the Spherical Multi-Mol (smmol) code, we calculated model [O i] line profiles and found that the strength of the [O i] 63-μm line was reduced by 20-80 per cent, depending on the PDR parameters. We conclude that high PDR densities and radiation field strengths, coupled with the effects of [O i] 63-μm self-absorption, are likely to provide the best match to the observed line flux ratios. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 RAS. Source

Kamble P.,SDMCMSH | Trivedi D.J.,SDMCMSH | Bargale A.,SDMCMSH | Pandhare V.,GCSMC | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences | Year: 2011

The aim of our study is to determine the effects of alcohol intake and cigarette smoking on the activity of Xanthine oxidase (XO), Lipid peroxidation (LPO) and Uric acid in patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI). This study includes 60 patients of AMI [smokers (n=15), non-smokers (n=15), alcoholics (n=15) and non-alcoholics (n=15)] and 30 normal controls. Xanthine oxidase, Lipid peroxidation and Uric acid levels in smokers, nonsmokers, alcoholics, non-alcoholics and controls are (34.6±2.9, 33.8±2.4, 34.6±2.8, 33.9±2.5, 30.3±1.2), (5.45±0.75, 5.34±0.86, 5.07±0.82, 5.71±0.61, 2.39±0.82) and (6.24±0.36, 5.78±0.86, 5.78±0.85, 6.24±0.37, 5.2 ±1.82) respectively. Our result shows that the levels of XO, LPO and uric acid in smokers are elevated than controls. Regarding alcoholics there is no significant difference in the study parameters. Therefore, these results mainly focus towards smoking habit which can be an additional factor to enhance the severity of AMI. Source

Whitmill C.,MC
Energy and Environment | Year: 2012

Alarmed by what Lord Stern famously described as "the biggest market failure in history", the European Commission has been prolific in producing policies to force the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, in particular carbon. The EU "20-20-20" Directive demands that by 2020, 20 per cent of energy comes from renewable sources, emissions are 20 per cent lower (compared with 1990 levels) and energy efficiency reduces demand by 20 per cent. The UK's individual target is 15 per cent renewable energy, which means that the fraction of electricity supplied by renewables must more than triple to 35 per cent. Since the general election in 2010 the Coalition has continued with plans to decarbonise the economy, beginning with the largest carbon emitter, energy generation. This paper argues that the Coalition's emphasis on rewarding increases in capacity without a corresponding improvement in performance and a reduction in costs is at the expense of technological innovation, R&D and a skilled workforce. Source

Stewart R.M.,MC
American Journal of Surgery | Year: 2011

Surgery as a profession rests on an age-old foundation based on 3 fundamental pillars: the collective character of our surgeons, their commitment to a practice based on science, and their pledge of service to humanity. The past 2 centuries bear witness to the success of surgical science. Significant improvement in the remaining 2 pillars is less evident. Our profession would be transformed in a positive way if we strengthened our commitment to improving our character while consciously building the character of our young, if we made the scientific method a way of life, and if we truly dedicated ourselves to the service of others. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Patience J.,University of Exeter | Bulger J.,University of Exeter | King R.R.,University of Exeter | Ayliffe B.,University of Exeter | And 6 more authors.
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2011

Dynamical interactions between planets and debris disks may sculpt the disk structure and impact planetary orbits, but only a few systems with both imaged planets and spatially resolved debris disks are known. With the Caltech Submm Observatory (CSO), we have observed the HR 8799 debris disk at 350 μm. The 350 μm map is the first spatially resolved measurement of the debris disk encircling the HR 8799 planetary system at this wavelength. Both the flux and size of the emission are consistent with a Kuiper belt of dust extending from ∼ 100-300 AU. Although the resolution of the current map is limited, the map shows an indication of offset asymmetric emission, and several scenarios for this possibility are explored with radiative transfer calculations of a star-disk system and N-body numerical simulations of planet-disk interactions with parameters representative of the HR 8799 system. © 2011 ESO. Source

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