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Ling K.,Mayo Translational Center | Ling K.,Mayo Medical School | Hu J.,Mayo Translational Center | Hu J.,Mayo Medical School
Nature Cell Biology | Year: 2012

The bidirectional movement of intraflagellar transport (IFT) particles, which are composed of motors, IFT-A and IFT-B subcomplexes, and cargoes, is required for the biogenesis and signalling of cilia. A successful IFT cycle depends on the proper assembly of the massive IFT particle at the ciliary base and its turnaround from anterograde to retrograde transport at the ciliary tip. However, how IFT assembly and turnaround are regulated in vivo remains elusive. From a whole-genome mutagenesis screen in Caenorhabditis elegans, we identified two hypomorphic mutations in dyf-2 and bbs-1 as the only mutants showing normal anterograde IFT transport but defective IFT turnaround at the ciliary tip. Further analyses revealed that the BBSome (refs,), a group of conserved proteins affected in human Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS), assembles IFT complexes at the ciliary base, then binds to the anterograde IFT particle in a DYF-2-(an orthologue of human WDR19) and BBS-1-dependent manner, and lastly reaches the ciliary tip to regulate proper IFT recycling. Our results identify the BBSome as the key player regulating IFT assembly and turnaround in cilia. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.


Wei Q.,Mayo Medical School | Ling K.,Mayo Medical School | Hu J.,Mayo Medical School | Hu J.,Mayo Translational Center
Current Opinion in Cell Biology | Year: 2015

Once thought of as a vestigial organelle, the primary cilium is now recognized as a signaling hub for key cellular pathways in vertebrate development. The recent renaissance in cilia studies significantly improved our understanding of how cilia form and function, but little is known about how ciliogenesis is initiated and how ciliary proteins enter cilia. These important ciliary events require transition fibers (TFs) that are positioned at the ciliary base as symmetric nine-bladed propeller fibrous structures. Up until recently, TFs have been the most underappreciated ciliary structures due to limited knowledge about their molecular composition and function. Here, we highlight recent advances in our understanding of TF composition and the indispensable roles of TFs in regulating the initiation of ciliogenesis and the selective import of ciliary proteins. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Li Y.,Mayo Medical School | Ling K.,Mayo Medical School | Ling K.,Mayo Translational Center | Hu J.,Mayo Medical School | Hu J.,Mayo Translational Center
Journal of Cellular Biochemistry | Year: 2012

Once overlooked as an evolutionary vestige, the primary cilium has recently been the focus of intensive studies. Mounting data show that this organelle is a hub for various signaling pathways during vertebrate embryonic development and pattern formation. However, how cilia form and how cilia execute the sensory function still remain poorly understood. Cilia dysfunction is correlated with a wide spectrum of human diseases, now termed ciliopathies. Various small GTPases, including the members in Arf/Arl, Rab, and Ran subfamilies, have been implicated in cilia formation and/or function. Here we review and discuss the role of one particular group of small GTPase, Arf/Arl, in the context of cilia and ciliopathy. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Wei Q.,Mayo Medical School | Xu Q.,Mayo Medical School | Zhang Y.,Mayo Medical School | Li Y.,Mayo Medical School | And 9 more authors.
Nature Communications | Year: 2013

Sensory organelle cilia have critical roles in mammalian embryonic development and tissue homeostasis. Intraflagellar transport (IFT) machinery is required for the assembly and maintenance of cilia. Yet, how this large complex passes through the size-dependent barrier at the ciliary base remains enigmatic. Here we report that FBF1, a highly conserved transition fibre protein, is required for the ciliary import of assembled IFT particles at the ciliary base. We cloned dyf-19, the Caenorhabditis elegans homologue of human FBF1, in a whole-genome screen for ciliogenesis mutants. DYF-19 localizes specifically to transition fibres and interacts directly with the IFT-B component DYF-11/IFT54. Although not a structural component of transition fibres, DYF-19 is required for the transit of assembled IFT particles through the ciliary base. Furthermore, we found that human FBF1 shares conserved localization and function with its worm counterpart. We conclude that FBF1 is a key functional transition fibre component that actively facilitates the ciliary entry of assembled IFT machinery.© 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

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