Mayo Medical School is a research institution and medical school which is a part of the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota, United States. It grants degrees in medicine, and is accredited by the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools. Currently, it is considered the most selective school in terms of acceptance rates. It had an acceptance rate of 2.1% in the year 2012. It is also considered one of the least expensive private medical schools in the country in the 2012-2013 academic school year. Wikipedia.
Stewart E.A.,Mayo Medical School
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2015
A 47-year-old black woman has heavy menstrual bleeding and iron-deficiency anemia. She reports nocturia and urinary frequency. A colonoscopy is negative. Ultrasonography shows a modestly enlarged uterus with three uterine fibroids. She is not planning to become pregnant. How should this case be evaluated and managed? Copyright © 2015 Massachusetts Medical Society.
Swiecicki P.L.,Mayo Medical School
Blood | Year: 2013
Cold agglutinin disease is a rare and poorly understood disorder affecting 15% of patients with autoimmune hemolytic anemia. We reviewed the clinical and pathologic features, prognosis, and management in the literature and describe our institutional experience to improve strategies for accurate diagnosis and treatment. Retrospective analysis identified 89 patients from our institution with cold agglutinin disease from 1970 through 2012. Median age at symptom onset was 65 years (range, 41 to 83 years), whereas the median age at diagnosis was 72 years (range, 43 to 91 years). Median survival of all patients was 10.6 years, and 68 patients (76%) were alive 5 years after the diagnosis. The most common symptom was acrocyanosis (n = 39 [44%]), and many had symptoms triggered by cold (n = 35 [39%]) or other factors (n = 20 [22%]). An underlying hematologic disorder was detected in 69 patients (78%). Thirty-six patients (40%) received transfusions during their disease course, and 82% received drug therapy. Rituximab was associated with the longest response duration (median, 24 months) and the lowest proportion of patients needing further treatment (55%). Our institution's experience and review of the literature confirms that early diagnostic evaluation and treatment improves outcomes in cold agglutinin disease.
Roger V.L.,Mayo Medical School
Circulation Research | Year: 2013
Heart failure (HF) has been singled out as an epidemic and is a staggering clinical and public health problem, associated with significant mortality, morbidity, and healthcare expenditures, particularly among those aged ≥65 years. The case mix of HF is changing over time with a growing proportion of cases presenting with preserved ejection fraction for which there is no specific treatment. Despite progress in reducing HF-related mortality, hospitalizations for HF remain frequent and rates of readmissions continue to rise. To prevent hospitalizations, a comprehensive characterization of predictors of readmission in patients with HF is imperative and must integrate the impact of multimorbidity related to coexisting conditions. New models of patient-centered care that draw on community-based resources to support HF patients with complex coexisting conditions are needed to decrease hospitalizations. © 2013 American Heart Association, Inc.
Kita H.,Mayo Medical School
Immunological Reviews | Year: 2011
Eosinophils are leukocytes resident in mucosal tissues. During T-helper 2 (Th2)-type inflammation, eosinophils are recruited from bone marrow and blood to the sites of immune response. While eosinophils have been considered end-stage cells involved in host protection against parasite infection and immunopathology in hypersensitivity disease, recent studies changed this perspective. Eosinophils are now considered multifunctional leukocytes involved in tissue homeostasis, modulation of adaptive immune responses, and innate immunity to certain microbes. Eosinophils are capable of producing immunoregulatory cytokines and are actively involved in regulation of Th2-type immune responses. However, such new information does not preclude earlier observations showing that eosinophils, in particular human eosinophils, are also effector cells with proinflammatory and destructive capabilities. Eosinophils with activation phenotypes are observed in biological specimens from patients with disease, and deposition of eosinophil products is readily seen in the affected tissues from these patients. Therefore, it would be reasonable to consider the eosinophil a multifaceted leukocyte that contributes to various physiological and pathological processes depending on their location and activation status. This review summarizes the emerging concept of the multifaceted immunobiology of eosinophils and discusses the roles of eosinophils in health and disease and the challenges and perspectives in the field. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Bahn R.S.,Mayo Medical School
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2010
This article reviews the mechanisms that lead to the development of Graves' ophthalmopathy. A central feature in its development is autoimmunity that involves not only T cells, B cells, and macrophages but also fibroblasts and adipose tissue within the orbit. Intraorbital cytokine-mediated inflammation also has a prominent role. These recent findings suggest new ways of treating this debilitating disease. Copyright © 2010 Massachusetts Medical Society.
Tefferi A.,Mayo Medical School
Blood | Year: 2012
On November 16, 2011, the Food and Drug Administration approved ruxolitinib (a JAK1 and JAK2 inhibitor) for use in the treatment of high and intermediate risk myelofibrosis. This is welcome news for those patients in whom such therapy is indicated and treatment benefit outweighs attendant risk. The question is who are these patients, what should they expect in terms of both short-term effects and long-term impact, and why would they choose ruxolitinib over other JAK inhibitors that are freely available for use in a research setting. Ruxolitinib and most other JAK inhibitors exert a salutary effect on constitutional symptoms and splenomegaly but have yet to produce histopathologic or cytogenetic remissions, reverse bone marrow fibrosis, or improve survival over best supportive care. Furthermore, the palliative value of JAK inhibitors is diminished by notable side effects, including anemia, thrombocytopenia, gastrointestinal disturbances, metabolic abnormalities, peripheral neuropathy, and hyperacute relapse of symptoms during treatment discontinuation. Therefore, risk-benefit balance favors use of currently available JAK inhibitors in only a select group of patients with myelofibrosis, and their potential value in polycythemia vera, outside of special circumstances (eg, intractable pruritus), is undermined by the absence of evidence for a disease-modifying effect and presence of arguably superior alternatives. © 2012 by The American Society of Hematology.
Singh M.,Mayo Medical School
Journal of the American College of Cardiology | Year: 2015
Bleeding avoidance strategies for percutaneous coronary interventions continue to evolve with the availability of newer antiplatelet and anticoagulation therapies. Advances in interventional practices have altered the balance between ischemic and bleeding complications. With the availability of rapidly-acting platelet adenosine diphosphate-receptor antagonists, the need for routine glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors has diminished. Recent meta-analyses and trials have advanced our knowledge of vascular access and different anticoagulation regimens. Vascular closure devices have long been used for early ambulation; however, more recent results demonstrating lower bleeding complications from observational registries are encouraging. This review synthesizes this information, taking into account changes in the landscape of interventional practice with respect to current bleeding avoidance strategies. © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation.
Pardanani A.,Mayo Medical School
Blood | Year: 2013
Indolent systemic mastocytosis (SM) patients have a varied clinical presentation, ranging from predominantly cutaneous symptoms to recurrent systemic symptoms (eg, flushing, palpitations, dyspepsia, diarrhea, bone pain) that can be severe and potentially life threatening (anaphylaxis). Mastocytosis patients without skin involvement pose a diagnostic challenge; a high index of suspicion is needed in those with mast cell-degranulation symptoms, including anaphylaxis following Hymenoptera stings or other triggers. Modern-era molecular and flow-cytometric diagnostic methods are very sensitive and can detect minimal involvement of bone marrow with atypical/clonal mast cells; in some cases, full diagnostic criteria for SM are not fulfilled. An important aspect of treatment is avoidance of known symptom triggers; other treatment principles include a stepwise escalation of antimediator therapies and consideration of cytoreductive therapies for those with treatment-refractory symptoms. The perioperative management of mastocytosis patients is nontrivial; a multidisciplinary preoperative assessment, adequate premedications, and close intra- and postoperative monitoring are critical. Smoldering mastocytosis is a variant with high systemic mast cell burden. While its clinical course can be variable, there is greater potential need for cytoreductive therapies (eg, interferon-alpha, cladribine) in this setting. A systematic approach to the diagnosis and treatment of indolent SM using a case-based approach of representative clinical scenarios is presented here.
Shanafelt T.D.,Mayo Medical School
Blood | Year: 2013
Immunotherapy that facilitates endogenous T-cell activity has the potential to target therapy-resistant tumor clones. In vitro studies have demonstrated that lenalidomide repairs the T-cell immunologic synapse defect in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Pentostatin, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab (PCR) in CLL is clinically active with modest toxicity, indicating suitability of this chemoimmunotherapy (CIT) platform for combination with immunotherapy. Here we report on a trial of PCR followed by lenalidomide consolidation. Of 34 patients who received lenalidomide, 24% improved their quality of response and 4 patients converted to minimal residual disease negative status. Retrospective comparison to a historical PCR trial indicated that lenalidomide consolidation extends time to progression requiring salvage therapy. Longitudinal analysis showed that antitumor T-cell immune synapse activity improved post-PCR and was further enhanced after lenalidomide consolidation. These novel data showing repair of T-cell defects provide proof-of-principle that lenalidomide-based consolidation after CIT could have a beneficial clinical and immunologic role in CLL.
Stewart A.K.,Mayo Medical School
Science | Year: 2014
The surprising ability of thalidomide and its analogs to treat various hematologic malignancies is through the loss of two transcription factors.