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Gaillimh, Ireland

Galway-Mayo Institute of Technology is a third level institute of education and is based at five locations in the west of Ireland. Wikipedia.

Minto C.,Dalhousie University | Minto C.,Mayo Institute of Technology, Galway | Worm B.,Dalhousie University
Ecology | Year: 2012

Species interactions that play out over large spatial scales are difficult to observe, particularly in the oceans. The current lack of empirical evidence for biologically meaningful interaction parameters likely delays the application of holistic management procedures. Here we estimate interactions during the early life history of fish across regions. We present separate and hierarchical Bayesian models that estimate the direction and strength of interactions between Atlantic cod and dominant pelagic fishes across much of their range in the North Atlantic. We test the hypothesis that small pelagic fish may reduce survival of cod at early life stages, and thereby contribute to the delayed recovery of depleted cod populations. Significant regional variation exists between cod recruitment and Atlantic herring abundance with eight of 14 regions displaying a negative relationship, four regions displaying no relationship, and a positive relationship observed in two regions. In contrast, most regions where Atlantic mackerel co-occurs showed no relationship with cod recruitment, with the possible exception of Gulf of St. Lawrence and Celtic Sea regions. Regions with sprat or capelin as dominant pelagics also displayed weak or no relationship, although the probability of a negative interaction with sprat increased when time series autocorrelation was accounted for. Overall, the interaction between herring and young cod was found to be negative with 94% probability, while the probability of negative interactions with mackerel was only 68%. Our findings suggest that the strength of predation or competition effects on young cod varies among small pelagic species but appears consistently for Atlantic herring; this effect may need to be considered in recovery trajectories for depleted cod populations. The methods introduced here are applicable in the investigation of species interactions from time series data collected across different study systems. © 2012 by the Ecological Society of America.

Costello G.J.,Mayo Institute of Technology, Galway
European Journal of Engineering Education | Year: 2016

The purpose of this work is to contribute to the debate on the best pedagogical approach to developing undergraduate mechanical engineering skills to meet the requirements of contemporary complex working environments. The paper provides an example of using student–entrepreneur collaboration in the teaching of modules to Mechanical Engineering final-year students. Problem-based learning (PBL) is one of the most significant recent innovations in the area of education for the professions. This work proposes to make an original contribution by simulating a real-life entrepreneur interaction for the students. The current literature largely confines simulation-based learning to computer applications such as games. However, this paper argues that role playing by students interfacing with technology start-ups can also be regarded as ‘simulation’ in a wider sense. Consequently, the paper proposes the concept of simulation-action learning as an enhancement of PBL and to distinguish it from computer simulation. © 2016 SEFI

Shephard S.,Mayo Institute of Technology, Galway | Reid D.G.,Marine Institute of Ireland | Greenstreet S.P.R.,Marine Scotland - Marine Laboratory
ICES Journal of Marine Science | Year: 2011

The large fish indicator (LFI) was developed in the North Sea as a size-based indicator of fish community state. It is now established as OSPAR's fish community Ecological Quality Objective (EcoQO) metric and will be applied across all OSPAR regions. To produce a protocol for use when developing regional LFIs, the North Sea experience is interpreted using data from the Celtic Sea. Differences in fish community species composition and size distribution were reflected in a different species complex and large fish threshold (50 cm) for the Celtic Sea LFI. However, a lag of 12-14 years in the relationship between assemblage-averaged fishing mortality F com,y and the LFI suggested similar underlying ecological mechanisms to the North Sea. The indicator responded to changes in small fish biomass that follow fishing-induced changes in the level of predation by large demersal piscivores. The Celtic Sea LFI showed maximum observed values >0.40 before 1990, and 0.40 is here proposed as an EcoQO. Development of regional LFIs demands a flexible process rather than a strictly prescriptive protocol. © 2011 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea.

Minto C.,Mayo Institute of Technology, Galway | Mills Flemming J.,Dalhousie University | Britten G.L.,Dalhousie University | Worm B.,Dalhousie University
Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences | Year: 2014

Productivity is a central determinant of population dynamics with consequences for population viability, resilience to exploitation, and extinction. In fish, the strength of a cohort is typically established during early life stages. Traditional approaches to measuring productivity do not allow for interannual variation in the maximum reproductive rate, a parameter governing population productivity. Allowing such process variation provides the ability to track dynamic changes instead of assuming a static productivity regime. Here we develop and evaluate a multivariate stock-recruitment state-space model to simultaneously estimate time-varying stock productivity and synchronicity of dynamics across populations. We apply the method to North Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) populations, showing that the productivity of early life stages has varied markedly over time, with many populations at historically low productivity. Trends in productivity were similar in some adjacent populations but less regionally coherent than previously thought, particularly in the Northwest Atlantic. Latitudinal variation in the Northeast Atlantic suggests a differential response to environmental change. We conclude that time-varying productivity provides a useful framework that integrates across many dimensions of environmental change affecting early life history dynamics.

Ni Chualain C.,Mayo Institute of Technology, Galway | Robinson M.,Marine Center
ICES Journal of Marine Science | Year: 2011

Endoparasitic dinoflagellates of the genus Hematodinium have recently gained attention as significant pathogens of the brown crab Cancer pagurus in Ireland. Patent infections, which are characterized by a hyperpigmented carapace and moribund condition, are limited to the discrete periods when macroscopic identification is possible. Three methods are assessed for diagnosing Hematodinium sp. infections in brown crab at the times when macroscopic identification is not always possible. Haemolymph smears, histological sections of gill, heart, midgut, hepatopancreas, muscle, and gonad, and a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay provided virtually equivalent accuracy in gauging infection prevalence, regardless of season. Sequences of PCR amplicons from the 18S ribosomal RNA gene confirmed the identity of the parasite as belonging to the genus Hematodinium. Infection intensity values (<1-87%) obtained from haemolymph smears underscored infection levels within tissues, 90% of which contained advanced levels of infection. Alterations to tissues of infected crabs included haemocytopoenia, oedema, which caused dilation of the haemal sinuses resulting in pressure necrosis to the connective tissues around the oocytes, myocardial bundles, and hepatopancreatic tubules. The claw muscle of infected animals contained the fewest parasites. © 2011 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea.

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