Castlebar, Ireland
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Robb W.B.,Mayo General Hospital | Falk G.A.,Cleveland Clinic | Larkin J.O.,Mayo General Hospital | Waldron Jr. R.,Mayo General Hospital | Waldron R.P.,Mayo General Hospital
Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery | Year: 2012

Introduction: The recent introduction of a Surgical Safety Checklist has significantly reduced the morbidity and mortality of surgery. Such a simple measure that can impact so highly on surgical outcomes causes all surgeons to pause for thought. This paper documents the introduction of a 10-step intraoperative surgical checklist (ISC) to standardize performance, decision-making, and training during laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). The checklist's impact on conversion rates to open cholecystectomy (OC) is presented. Methods: In 2004, a 10-step ISC was introduced by a single consultant surgeon for the performance of LCs. Data were collected comparing LCs between 1999-2003 (period 1) and 2004-2008 (period 2). Data on sex, age, American Society of Anesthesiology grade, previous abdominal surgery, severity of gallbladder pathology, and conversion to OC were recorded. The chi-squared test with Yates correction was used to compare groups. Results: In total, 637 LCs were performed, 277 during period 1 and 360 during period 2. Risk factors for conversion (gender, age, previous abdominal surgery, and severity of gallbladder pathology) were not significantly different in the two periods studied. The overall conversion rate to OC fell significantly in period 2 (p = 0.001). Subgroup analysis also showed a significant reduction in conversion rates in female patients (p = 0.002) and patients with grades III and IV gallbladder disease (p = 0.001). Conclusions: The introduction of a 10-step ISC was temporally related to reduced conversion rates to OC. The standardization of a frequently performed operation such as a LC that could potentially lead to an impact as great the one we observed warrants further attention in prospective, appropriately designed studies. © 2012 The Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract.


Duggan M.,Mayo General Hospital | Kavanagh B.P.,University of Toronto
Best Practice and Research: Clinical Anaesthesiology | Year: 2010

Postoperative pulmonary complications contribute considerably to morbidity and mortality, especially after major thoracic or abdominal surgery. Clinically relevant pulmonary complications include the exacerbation of underlying chronic lung disease, bronchospasm, atelectasis, pneumonia and respiratory failure with prolonged mechanical ventilation. Risk factors for postoperative pulmonary complications include patient-related risk factors (e.g., chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), tobacco smoking and increasing age) as well as procedure-related risk factors (e.g., site of surgery, duration of surgery and general vs. regional anaesthesia). Careful history taking and a thorough physical examination may be the most sensitive ways to identify at-risk patients. Pulmonary function tests are not suitable as a general screen to assess risk of postoperative pulmonary complications. Strategies to reduce the risk of postoperative pulmonary complications include smoking cessation, inspiratory muscle training, optimising nutritional status and intra-operative strategies. Postoperative care should include lung expansion manoeuvres and adequate pain control. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


O'Gorman C.S.M.,University of Limerick | O'Neill M.B.,Mayo General Hospital | Conwell L.S.,University of Queensland
Vascular Health and Risk Management | Year: 2011

Children who appear healthy, even if they have one or more recognized cardiovascular risk factors, do not generally have outcomes of cardiovascular or other vascular disease during childhood. Historically, pediatric medicine has not aggressively screened for or treated cardiovascular risk factors in otherwise healthy children. However, studies such as the P-Day Study (Pathobiological Determinants of Atherosclerosis in Youth), and the Bogalusa Heart Study, indicate that healthy children at remarkably young ages can have evidence of significant atherosclerosis. With the increasing prevalence of pediatric obesity, can we expect more health problems related to the consequences of pediatric dyslipidemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and atherosclerosis in the future? For many years, medications have been available and used in adult populations to treat dyslipidemia. In recent years, reports of short-term safety of some of these medications in children have been published. However, none of these studies have detailed long-term follow-up, and therefore none have described potential late side-effects of early cholesterol-lowering therapy, or potential benefits in terms of reduction of or delay in cardiovascular or other vascular end-points. In 2007, the American Heart Association published a scientific statement on the use of cholesterol-lowering therapy in pediatric patients. In this review paper, we discuss some of the current literature on cholesterol-lowering therapy in children, including the statins that are currently available for use in children, and some of the cautions with using these and other cholesterol-lowering medications. A central tenet of this review is that medications are not a substitute for dietary and lifestyle interventions, and that even in children on cholesterol-lowering medications, physicians should take every opportunity to encourage children and their parents to make healthy diet and lifestyle choices. © 2011 O'Gorman et al.


Coyle D.,Mayo General Hospital
Irish medical journal | Year: 2012

This study aimed to assess the impact of ring-fenced inpatient general surgical beds on day of surgery (DOS) admission, duration of elective inpatient stay (DEIS), and cancellation rates over a 6 month period. In June 2010 17 of 60 surgical inpatient beds were decommissioned. The remainder (43) were ring-fenced for general surgery patients only. Comparative analysis examining admission rates, cancellation rates, and theatre activity was performed between a reference period (January-June 2010) and the study period (July-December 2010). Complexity of all operations was graded according to an index schedule of procedures. There was no difference between the reference and study periods in volumes of elective admissions (472 [53.03%] vs. 418 [4797%]) and emergency admissions (928 [50.03%] vs. 927 [49.97%]). DOS admissions increased 5-fold during the study period (38 [8.1%] vs. 190 [45.5%], P < 0.001). Average duration of elective inpatient stay reduced from 4.3 days to 3.06 days in the study period (P < 0.001). No difference was observed in volume of operations performed at all levels of complexity. There were 78 (58.2%) cancellations during the reference period and 56 (41.8%) during the study period with patient non-attendance the most common cause for cancellation in both periods. Ring-fenced surgical beds facilitated higher DOS admission rates and shorter duration of elective inpatient stay, leading to more efficient use of hospital resources.


Connelly T.M.,Mayo General Hospital | Shaw A.,Mayo General Hospital | O'Grady P.,Mayo General Hospital
International Orthopaedics | Year: 2015

Purpose: The aim of the present study was to evaluate functional and quality of life outcomes after transosseous equivalent (TOE) double row suture technique for massive rotator cuff (RTC) tear repair using validated subjective and objective measures. This technique has shown promising preliminary results in RTC repair; however, a paucity of evidence regarding these outcomes in massive RTC (MRTC) tear repair exists. Methods: Patients were identified using the Hospital Inpatient Enquiry Scheme. Pre-operative MRI and medical records were reviewed. A massive RTC tear was defined as the detachment of two or more tendons from their point of insertion on the humeral head. The Constant and Oxford Shoulder Scores (OSS) and SF-12 questionnaire were used for evaluation. Results: Twenty-two patients were studied (72.7 % male; mean age at surgery, 62.6 years). Mean follow up was 14 (range six to 30) months. At six weeks postoperatively, 68 % achieved good or excellent shoulder function as measured by the OSS and Constant score. The cohort’s mean SF-12 physical and emotional scores were significantly lower (p = 0.0002 and 0.037) and the vitality and mental health scores were higher (p = 0.005 and 0.006) than the reference norm scores. Conclusions: The TOE double row surgical repair for MRTC tears provides good to excellent functional outcomes and is associated with high vitality and mental health scores at a mean of 14 months. Physical and emotional scores were lower than reference norm. These results suggest this repair technique is appropriate for massive rotator cuff tears, and future randomised control studies are warranted. © 2015, SICOT aisbl.


Queally J.M.,Mayo General Hospital | Kiernan C.,Mayo General Hospital | Shaikh M.,Mayo General Hospital | Rowan F.,Mayo General Hospital | Bennett D.,Mayo General Hospital
Osteoporosis International | Year: 2013

Osteoporosis management post fragility fracture has traditionally been deficient with up to 60-90 % of patients remaining untreated for osteoporosis in some studies. Efforts have been made to address this deficiency with some successes reported. Introduction: The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of two different models of screening for osteoporosis in a community fracture clinic setting. Methods: A prospective randomised clinical trial was conducted to assess the DXA scan and treatment rates in patients with fragility fractures when assessment for osteoporosis had been initiated in the fracture clinic compared with the "usual care" of assessment initiation by the participant's general practitioner. Results: Sixty-six patients were enrolled in the study. Thirty-three patients each were in the control and intervention groups. The assessment rate (DXA scan rate) was significantly better in the intervention group where participants were referred for assessment from fracture clinic compared to the control group where participants were referred for assessment by their general practitioner (68 vs 36 %, respectively; p < 0.05). For patients who were assessed for osteoporosis, treatment rates were similar in both the control and intervention groups (100 vs 88 %, p > 0.05). Conclusion: This study demonstrates that screening for osteoporosis initiated in fracture clinic results in improved osteoporosis management compared to screening initiated in primary care. Orthopaedic surgeons and other specialists need to be more active in managing osteoporosis in patients who present with fragility fractures and should at the very least initiate assessment in the fracture clinic setting. © 2012 International Osteoporosis Foundation and National Osteoporosis Foundation.


Robertson I.,Mayo General Hospital
Irish journal of medical science | Year: 2013

The general hospital can play an important role in training of higher surgical trainees (HSTs) in Ireland and abroad. Training opportunities in such a setting have not been closely analysed to date. The aim of this study was to quantify operative exposure for HSTs over a 5-year period in a single institution. Analysis of electronic training logbooks (over a 5-year period, 2007-2012) was performed for general surgery trainees on the higher surgical training programme in Ireland. The most commonly performed adult and paediatric procedures per trainee, per year were analysed. Standard general surgery operations such as herniae (average 58, range 32-86) and cholecystectomy (average 60, range 49-72) ranked highly in each logbook. The most frequently performed emergency operations were appendicectomy (average 45, range 33-53) and laparotomy for acute abdomen (average 48, range 10-79). Paediatric surgical experience included appendicectomy, circumcision, orchidopexy and hernia/hydrocoele repair. Overall, the procedure most commonly performed in the adult setting was endoscopy, with each trainee recording an average of 116 (range 98-132) oesophagogastroduodenoscopies and 284 (range 227-354) colonoscopies. General hospitals continue to play a major role in the training of higher surgical trainees. Analysis of the electronic logbooks over a 5-year period reveals the high volume of procedures available to trainees in a non-specialist centre. Such training opportunities are invaluable in the context of changing work practices and limited resources.


Irfan M.,Mayo General Hospital
Irish medical journal | Year: 2012

Management of the appendix mass is controversial with no consensus in the literature. Traditionally, the approach has been conservative followed by interval appendicectomy. A survey was distributed to 117 surgeons (100 consultants and 17 final year specialist registrars) to determine how the appendix mass is currently treated in Ireland. In total, 70 surgeons responded. 51 (73%) adopt a conservative approach initially. 48 (68%) favoured interval appendicectomy at six weeks after a period of successful conservative management. 34 (49%) gave risk of recurrence as the reason for performing interval appendicectomy and 16 (22%) would perform interval appendicectomy in order to obtain histological analysis to outrule caecal or appendiceal neoplasm. 44 (63%) opted for a laparoscopic rather than an open approach for interval appendicectomy. No consensus exists in Ireland for management of the appendix mass presenting acutely. The present series demonstrates a trend towards conservative approach initially followed by interval appendicectomy.


Edmundson S.P.,Mayo General Hospital | Hirpara K.M.,Mayo General Hospital | Bennett D.,Mayo General Hospital
European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases | Year: 2011

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections are associated with increased mortality, costs and length of stay compared to non-MRSA infections. This observational 4-year study analyses the impact of screening and treating orthopaedic healthcare workers for MRSA colonisation. A total of 1,011 swabs were taken from 566 healthcare workers. Positive healthcare workers were treated with topical mupirocin to both anterior nares. The prevalence of MRSA colonisation on initial testing was 4.77%. The rate of positive MRSA colonisation of those tested on more than one occasion fell from 5.88% to 2.71% (p=0.055) on subsequent screening. All healthcare workers receiving treatment were successfully cleared of colonisation; however, some required more than one course of treatment. These results show that there could be a role for screening and treating orthopaedic staff for MRSA colonisation as part of a strategy to reduce the prevalence of MRSA infections in orthopaedic units. © Springer-Verlag 2011.


Connelly T.M.,Mayo General Hospital | Sakala M.,Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center | Tappouni R.,Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center
Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy | Year: 2015

Purpose: Fused pancreatic tissue encasing the portal and/or superior mesenteric vein, circumportal pancreas, is a congenital anomaly that has been associated with operative complications in resections involving the head of the pancreas. We describe this anomaly and highlight its pathophysiology and surgical outcomes through a review of the literature to date, drawings and a computed tomography example. Methods: A literature search was undertaken using Pubmed and the search terms “circumportal pancreas,” “annular pancreas” and “pancreatic anomaly.” Results: 91 cases of circumportal pancreas were identified in the literature. The number of reported cases increased with time. 14 were documented as having undergone surgery (11 carcinoma or suspected carcinoma/3 benign neoplasm). Surgical outcome was reported in 13. Five of 13 (38.5 %) experienced a fistula. Three cases were treated with a drain. One incident of potentially unnecessary surgery due to the misidentification of circumportal pancreas was noted. Conclusions: (1) The identification of circumportal pancreas is increasing but is relatively rare. (2) Varying locations of the main pancreatic duct can induce inappropriate construction during pancreaticojejunostomy and can influence the risk of fistula. In the presence of CP, distal pancreatectomy with pancreatic division in front of portal vein creates two sources of pancreatic fistula. (3) The high incidence of associated vascular variants can directly influence pancreatic resection and can affect vascular reconstruction for complete oncologic resection. Therefore, the preoperative location of the main pancreatic duct and presence of any vascular variants in CP must be systematically identified before programed surgery. © 2015, Springer-Verlag France.

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