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Castlebar, Ireland

This study aimed to assess the impact of ring-fenced inpatient general surgical beds on day of surgery (DOS) admission, duration of elective inpatient stay (DEIS), and cancellation rates over a 6 month period. In June 2010 17 of 60 surgical inpatient beds were decommissioned. The remainder (43) were ring-fenced for general surgery patients only. Comparative analysis examining admission rates, cancellation rates, and theatre activity was performed between a reference period (January-June 2010) and the study period (July-December 2010). Complexity of all operations was graded according to an index schedule of procedures. There was no difference between the reference and study periods in volumes of elective admissions (472 [53.03%] vs. 418 [4797%]) and emergency admissions (928 [50.03%] vs. 927 [49.97%]). DOS admissions increased 5-fold during the study period (38 [8.1%] vs. 190 [45.5%], P < 0.001). Average duration of elective inpatient stay reduced from 4.3 days to 3.06 days in the study period (P < 0.001). No difference was observed in volume of operations performed at all levels of complexity. There were 78 (58.2%) cancellations during the reference period and 56 (41.8%) during the study period with patient non-attendance the most common cause for cancellation in both periods. Ring-fenced surgical beds facilitated higher DOS admission rates and shorter duration of elective inpatient stay, leading to more efficient use of hospital resources. Source

Duggan M.,Mayo General Hospital | Kavanagh B.P.,University of Toronto
Best Practice and Research: Clinical Anaesthesiology

Postoperative pulmonary complications contribute considerably to morbidity and mortality, especially after major thoracic or abdominal surgery. Clinically relevant pulmonary complications include the exacerbation of underlying chronic lung disease, bronchospasm, atelectasis, pneumonia and respiratory failure with prolonged mechanical ventilation. Risk factors for postoperative pulmonary complications include patient-related risk factors (e.g., chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), tobacco smoking and increasing age) as well as procedure-related risk factors (e.g., site of surgery, duration of surgery and general vs. regional anaesthesia). Careful history taking and a thorough physical examination may be the most sensitive ways to identify at-risk patients. Pulmonary function tests are not suitable as a general screen to assess risk of postoperative pulmonary complications. Strategies to reduce the risk of postoperative pulmonary complications include smoking cessation, inspiratory muscle training, optimising nutritional status and intra-operative strategies. Postoperative care should include lung expansion manoeuvres and adequate pain control. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Robertson I.,Mayo General Hospital
Irish journal of medical science

The general hospital can play an important role in training of higher surgical trainees (HSTs) in Ireland and abroad. Training opportunities in such a setting have not been closely analysed to date. The aim of this study was to quantify operative exposure for HSTs over a 5-year period in a single institution. Analysis of electronic training logbooks (over a 5-year period, 2007-2012) was performed for general surgery trainees on the higher surgical training programme in Ireland. The most commonly performed adult and paediatric procedures per trainee, per year were analysed. Standard general surgery operations such as herniae (average 58, range 32-86) and cholecystectomy (average 60, range 49-72) ranked highly in each logbook. The most frequently performed emergency operations were appendicectomy (average 45, range 33-53) and laparotomy for acute abdomen (average 48, range 10-79). Paediatric surgical experience included appendicectomy, circumcision, orchidopexy and hernia/hydrocoele repair. Overall, the procedure most commonly performed in the adult setting was endoscopy, with each trainee recording an average of 116 (range 98-132) oesophagogastroduodenoscopies and 284 (range 227-354) colonoscopies. General hospitals continue to play a major role in the training of higher surgical trainees. Analysis of the electronic logbooks over a 5-year period reveals the high volume of procedures available to trainees in a non-specialist centre. Such training opportunities are invaluable in the context of changing work practices and limited resources. Source

Irfan M.,Mayo General Hospital
Irish medical journal

Management of the appendix mass is controversial with no consensus in the literature. Traditionally, the approach has been conservative followed by interval appendicectomy. A survey was distributed to 117 surgeons (100 consultants and 17 final year specialist registrars) to determine how the appendix mass is currently treated in Ireland. In total, 70 surgeons responded. 51 (73%) adopt a conservative approach initially. 48 (68%) favoured interval appendicectomy at six weeks after a period of successful conservative management. 34 (49%) gave risk of recurrence as the reason for performing interval appendicectomy and 16 (22%) would perform interval appendicectomy in order to obtain histological analysis to outrule caecal or appendiceal neoplasm. 44 (63%) opted for a laparoscopic rather than an open approach for interval appendicectomy. No consensus exists in Ireland for management of the appendix mass presenting acutely. The present series demonstrates a trend towards conservative approach initially followed by interval appendicectomy. Source

O'Gorman C.S.M.,University of Limerick | O'Neill M.B.,Mayo General Hospital | Conwell L.S.,University of Queensland
Vascular Health and Risk Management

Children who appear healthy, even if they have one or more recognized cardiovascular risk factors, do not generally have outcomes of cardiovascular or other vascular disease during childhood. Historically, pediatric medicine has not aggressively screened for or treated cardiovascular risk factors in otherwise healthy children. However, studies such as the P-Day Study (Pathobiological Determinants of Atherosclerosis in Youth), and the Bogalusa Heart Study, indicate that healthy children at remarkably young ages can have evidence of significant atherosclerosis. With the increasing prevalence of pediatric obesity, can we expect more health problems related to the consequences of pediatric dyslipidemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and atherosclerosis in the future? For many years, medications have been available and used in adult populations to treat dyslipidemia. In recent years, reports of short-term safety of some of these medications in children have been published. However, none of these studies have detailed long-term follow-up, and therefore none have described potential late side-effects of early cholesterol-lowering therapy, or potential benefits in terms of reduction of or delay in cardiovascular or other vascular end-points. In 2007, the American Heart Association published a scientific statement on the use of cholesterol-lowering therapy in pediatric patients. In this review paper, we discuss some of the current literature on cholesterol-lowering therapy in children, including the statins that are currently available for use in children, and some of the cautions with using these and other cholesterol-lowering medications. A central tenet of this review is that medications are not a substitute for dietary and lifestyle interventions, and that even in children on cholesterol-lowering medications, physicians should take every opportunity to encourage children and their parents to make healthy diet and lifestyle choices. © 2011 O'Gorman et al. Source

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